Charles Heckscher

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This paper traces the main lines of evolution of the organization of professional work. The argument is illustrated with material on the case of doctors and hospitals. While market and hierarchy principles have become progressively more salient in professional work, we argue that, in parallel, the community principle has been growing more influential, too.(More)
ly speaking, we can identify three primary principles of social organization. Hierarchy uses authority to create and coordinate a horizontal and vertical division of labor—a bureaucracy in Weber’s ideal-type form. Market relies on the price mechanism to coordinate competing and anonymous suppliers and buyers. Community relies on shared values and norms.(More)
Economic incentive models seem inconsistent with compensation practices and noneconomic writings on reward systems. This paper reconciles economic theory with practice and organizational behavior research in this area, by considering interactions between an organization's reward and career systems. These interactions explain many of the complexities and(More)
Can large companies be both innovative and efficient? Yes, argue Adler, of the University of Southern California; Heckscher, of Rutgers; and Prusak, an independent consultant. But they must develop new organizational capabilities that will create the atmosphere of trust that knowledge work requires--and the coordinating mechanisms to make it scalable.(More)
It is generally recognized that health care delivery in advanced societies is under severe strain from multiple sources including accelerating and interrelated increases in technological sophistication, quantity and specialization of knowledge, patient awareness and assertiveness, cost pressures, and societal demands for accountability. Most proposals for(More)
The decline of labor over the last few decades has spawned competing diagnoses and proposals for change. One set has focused on the way unions are organized — whether they have enough size, strategic focus, internal coordination and communication, and whether their finances and other resources are properly allocated.1 A second set has focused on mobilizing(More)
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