Charles Heald

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CONTEXT Prediction models to identify healthy individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease have limited accuracy. A low ankle brachial index (ABI) is an indicator of atherosclerosis and has the potential to improve prediction. OBJECTIVE To determine if the ABI provides information on the risk of cardiovascular events and mortality independently of(More)
A population-based case-control study of diet, inherited susceptibility and prostate cancer was undertaken in the lowlands and central belt of Scotland to investigate the effect of phyto-oestrogen intake and serum concentrations on prostate cancer risk. A total of 433 cases and 483 controls aged 50-74 years were asked to complete a validated FFQ and provide(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the strength and consistency with which a low ankle brachial pressure index (ABI), measured in the general population, is associated with an increased risk of subsequent death and/or cardiovascular events. DESIGN Systematic review. DATA SOURCES Medline, Embase, reference lists and grey literature were searched; studies known to(More)
OBJECTIVE To study dietary intake and serum concentrations of isoflavones in order to provide relative validation of isoflavone intake estimates from the Scottish Collaborative Group - Food-Frequency Questionnaire (SCG-FFQ). DESIGN Validation study. SETTING Southern Scotland. METHOD Dietary intake of isoflavones was estimated using the(More)
BACKGROUND The gap between the supply of organs available for transplantation and demand is growing, especially among ethnic groups. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of a video designed to address concerns of ethnic groups about organ donation. DESIGN Cluster randomized, controlled trial. Randomization was performed by using a random-number table with(More)
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