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It has been hypothesized that suppression of bone remodeling allows microdamage to accumulate, leading to increased bone fragility. This study evaluated the effects of reduced bone turnover produced by bisphosphonates on microdamage accumulation and biomechanical properties of cortical bone in the dog rib. Thirty-six female beagles, 1-2 years old, were(More)
An ultrasonic technique and microtensile testing were used to determine the Young's modulus of individual trabeculae and micro-specimens of cortical bone cut to similar size as individual trabeculae. The average trabecular Young's modulus measured ultrasonically and mechanically was 14.8 GPa (S.D. 1.4) and 10.4 (S.D. 3.5) and the average Young's modulus of(More)
We recently demonstrated that suppression of bone remodeling allows microdamage to accumulate, leading to reduced bone toughness in the rib cortex of dogs. This study evaluates the effects of reduced bone turnover produced by bisphosphonates on microdamage accumulation and biomechanical properties at clinically relevant skeletal sites in the same dogs.(More)
Sclerostin, the protein product of the Sost gene, is a potent inhibitor of bone formation. Among bone cells, sclerostin is found nearly exclusively in the osteocytes, the cell type that historically has been implicated in sensing and initiating mechanical signaling. The recent discovery of the antagonistic effects of sclerostin on Lrp5 receptor signaling, a(More)
Bone density predicts the risk of hip fracture. Because hip strength is determined by bone geometry and architecture as well as density, we tested which variables in geometry and architecture were independent discriminators of hip fracture and, if combined with density, improved the discrimination of fracture from non-fracture over bone density alone. The(More)
We present a noninvasive, in vivo model for strain application in the tibiae of rats. The hind limb of each animal was placed into a device that applied four point bending to the tibia. Bending was applied in the medial-lateral direction causing compression on the lateral surface of the tibia and tension on the anteromedial surface. The peak strain(More)
Exercise during growth results in biologically important increases in bone mineral content (BMC). The aim of this study was to determine whether the effects of loading were site specific and depended on the maturational stage of the region. BMC and humeral dimensions were determined using DXA and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the loaded and nonloaded(More)
The P2X7 nucleotide receptor (P2X7R) is an ATP-gated ion channel expressed in many cell types including osteoblasts and osteocytes. Mice with a null mutation of P2X7R have osteopenia in load bearing bones, suggesting that the P2X7R may be involved in the skeletal response to mechanical loading. We found the skeletal sensitivity to mechanical loading was(More)