Charles H. Shea

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The present experiment was designed to test the predictions of the constrained-action hypothesis. This hypothesis proposes that when performers utilize an internal focus of attention (focus on their movements) they may actually constrain or interfere with automatic control processes that would normally regulate the movement, whereas an external focus of(More)
We review research related to the learning of complex motor skills with respect to principles developed on the basis of simple skill learning. Although some factors seem to have opposite effects on the learning of simple and of complex skills, other factors appear to be relevant mainly for the learning of more complex skills. We interpret these apparently(More)
Previous studies (e.g., Wulf, Höss, & Prinz, 1998) have shown that motor learning can be enhanced by directing performers' attention to the effects of their movements ("external focus"), rather than to the body movements producing the effect ("internal focus"). The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that increasing the distance between(More)
Bimanual 1:1 coordination patterns other than in-phase (0 degrees ) and anti-phase (180 degrees ) have proven difficult to perform even with extended practice. The difficulty has been attributed to phase attraction that draws the coordination between the limbs towards the bimanual patterns of in-phase and anti-phase and variability associated with the(More)
Results from recent experiments (e.g., Kovacs, Buchanan, & Shea, 2009a-b, 2010a,b) suggest that when salient visual information is presented using Lissajous plots bimanual coordination patterns typically thought to be very difficult to perform without extensive practice can be performed with remarkably low relative phase error and variability with 5min or(More)
The effects of reduced frequency of presentation of relative-liming knowledge of results (KR) on constant and serial practice and whether response stability is associated with increased generalized motor program (GMP) learning were examined. Participants (N = 40) were asked to sequentially depress 4 keys (2, 4, 8, and 6) on the numeric pad portion of the(More)
The study examined the generalizability of the learning advantages produced by instructions that induce an external relative to an internal focus of attention (e.g., Wulf, G., H oû, M., & Prinz, W. (1998). Instructions for motor learning: Di€erential e€ects of internal versus external focus of attention. Journal of Motor Behavior, 30, 169±179.) to the(More)
Two experiments were conducted to determine if multi-frequency (2:1 and 3:2) coordination between the limbs is enhanced when integrated feedback is provided in the form of Lissajous plots, attention demands are reduced, and attempts to consciously coordinate the limbs are not encouraged. To determine the influence of vision of the limbs, covered and(More)
The effects of physical guidance on learning to perform slalom-type movements on a ski-simulator were examined in 22 participants (18 in Experiment 1, 4 in Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, 1 group of participants practiced the task with ski-poles whereas another group practiced without poles. Retention tests without poles were performed at the end of each of(More)
OBJECTIVES Findings from the contemporary psychological and movement science literature that appear to have implications for medical training are reviewed. Specifically, the review focuses on four factors that have been shown to enhance the learning of motor skills: observational practice; the learner's focus of attention; feedback, and self-controlled(More)