Learn More
In this study, food-deprived (18 h) control rats and rats with alloxan-induced diabetes were orally administered saline or the amino acid leucine to assess whether it regulates protein synthesis independently of a change in serum insulin concentrations. Immediately after leucine administration, diabetic rats were infused with insulin (0.0, 4.0, or 20 pmol(More)
Muscle wasting resulting wholly or in part from disuse represents a serious medical complication that, when prolonged, can increase morbidity and mortality. Although much knowledge has been gained over the past half century, the underlying etiology by which disuse alters muscle proteostasis remains enigmatic. Multidisciplinary and novel methodologies are(More)
BACKGROUND Acute and chronic alcohol intoxication decreases skeletal muscle protein synthesis under in vivo conditions. We investigated whether ethanol (EtOH) and its major metabolites, acetaldehyde and acetate, can directly modulate protein balance under in vitro conditions. METHODS Human myocytes were incubated with different doses of EtOH for varying(More)
The present study examined potential mechanisms for the inhibition of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle after chronic alcohol consumption. Rats were maintained on an alcohol-containing diet for 14 wk; control animals were pair fed. Alcohol-induced myopathy was confirmed by a reduction in lean body mass as well as a decrease in the weight of the(More)
The present study examined whether a prolonged infusion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) into rats could sustain the increased rate of whole body glucose metabolism observed with short term exposure, and whether TNF produced hepatic or peripheral insulin resistance. Basal glucose metabolism was determined with the use of [3-3H]glucose 18 h after initiating a(More)
Physiological stress associated with muscle damage results in systemic insulin resistance. However, the mechanisms responsible for the insulin resistance are not known; therefore, the present study was conducted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms associated with insulin resistance after muscle damage. Muscle biopsies were obtained before (base) and at 1(More)
The purpose of the present study was to examine the regulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in C2C12 myoblasts and mouse skeletal muscle. LPS produced dose- and time-dependent increases in TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNA content in C2C12 myoblasts. The LPS-induced cytokine response could be mimicked by(More)
The presence of increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the blood is associated with decreased muscle protein synthesis and the erosion of lean body mass in many catabolic conditions. However, little is known regarding the role of endogenous cytokine synthesis in muscle per se. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the cytokine(More)
Olanzapine and other atypical antipsychotics cause metabolic side effects leading to obesity and diabetes; although these continue to be an important public health concern, their underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Therefore, an animal model of these side effects was developed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Chronic administration of olanzapine elevated(More)
Enhanced protein synthesis in skeletal muscle after ingestion of a balanced meal in postabsorptive rats is mimicked by oral leucine administration. To assess the contribution of insulin to the protein synthetic response to leucine, food-deprived (18 h) male rats (approximately 200 g) were intravenously administered a primed-constant infusion of somatostatin(More)