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Heteronuclear NMR spin relaxation studies of conformational dynamics are coming into increasing use to help understand the functions of ribozymes and other RNAs. Due to strong 13C-13C magnetic interactions within the ribose ring, however, these studies have thus far largely been limited to (13)C and (15)N resonances on the nucleotide base side chains. We(More)
Conformational dynamics play a key role in the properties and functions of proteins and nucleic acids. Heteronuclear NMR spin relaxation is a uniquely powerful site-specific probe of dynamics in proteins and has found increasing applications to nucleotide base side chains and anomeric sites in RNA. Applications to the nucleic acid ribose backbone, however,(More)
The NMR solution structure of a lead-dependent ribozyme, known as the leadzyme, is presented. This ribozyme is among the smallest of the known catalytic RNAs, with an active site consisting of a six-nucleotide asymmetric internal loop. This loop has a roughly double-helical structure, including a protonated adenine-cytosine wobble base-pair, that positions(More)
The in vitro selected lead-dependent ribozyme is among the smallest and simplest of the known catalytic RNA motifs and has a unique metal ion specificity for divalent lead. The conformation and dynamics of this ribozyme are analyzed here by NMR and chemical probing experiments. Complete assignments of the 1H, 13C, and 15N resonances have been made, and the(More)
Although site-bound Mg2+ ions have been proposed to influence RNA structure and function, establishing the molecular properties of such sites has been challenging due largely to the unique electrostatic properties of the RNA biopolymer. We have previously determined that, in solution, the hammerhead ribozyme (a self-cleaving RNA) has a high-affinity metal(More)
Conformational dynamics are an important property of ribozymes and other RNA molecules but there is currently only limited information on the relationship between dynamics and RNA function. A recent structural study of the lead-dependent ribozyme, known as the leadzyme, showed significant dynamics at the active site and indicated that a structural(More)
Network-editing experiments are variants of the basic NOESY experiment that allow more accurate direct measurement of interproton distances in macromolecules by defeating specific spin-diffusion pathways. Two network-editing approaches, block-decoupled NOESY and complementary-block-decoupled-NOESY, were applied as three-dimensional, heteronuclear-edited(More)
The structural biology of ribozymes and ribonucleoprotein (RNP) enzymes is now sufficiently advanced that a true dialogue between structural and functional studies is possible. In this review, we consider three important systems in which an integration of structural and biochemical data has recently led to major advances in mechanistic understanding. In the(More)
We introduce the use of commercially available locked nucleic acids (LNAs) as a functional probe in RNA. LNA nucleotides contain a covalent linkage that restricts the pseudorotation phase of the ribose to C3'-endo (A-form). Introduction of an LNA at a single site thus allows the role of ribose structure and dynamics in RNA function to be assessed. We apply(More)
We report a novel NMR technique for the measurement of carbon-phosphorus coupling constants in RNA oligomers. This method, spin-echo difference constant-time HCCH-COSY, takes advantage of the well-dispersed H1' and C1' resonances to analyze couplings involving the more poorly dispersed ribose carbon and phosphorus resonances. The technique was applied to(More)