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The Voyager 2 plasma wave instrument detected many familiar plasma waves during the encounter with Neptune, including electron plasma oscillations in the solar wind upstream of the bow shock, electrostatic turbulence at the bow shock, and chorus, hiss, electron cyclotron waves, and upper hybrid resonance waves in the inner magnetosphere. Low-frequency radio(More)
During the Galileo flyby of Venus the plasma wave instrument was used to search for impulsive radio signals from lightning and to investigate locally generated plasma waves. A total of nine events were detected in the frequency range from 100 kilohertz to 5.6 megahertz. Although the signals are weak, lightning is the only known source of these signals. Near(More)
The plasma wave instrument on the International Cometary Explorer (ICE) detected bursts of strong ion acoustic waves almost continuously when the spacecraft was within 2 million kilometers of the nucleus of comet Giacobini-Zinner. Electromagnetic whistlers and low-level electron plasma oscillations were also observed in this vast region that appears to be(More)
P olitical gridlock is spreading a miasma of uncertainty over the space sciences in the United States. Neither those who give science advice nor those who receive it have a clear grasp of what the future holds, a reality for the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) that was underscored in NASA’s Strategic Direction and the Need for a(More)
44 T he United States faces unprecedented environmental and economic challenges in the decades ahead. Foremost among them will be climate change, sea-level rise, altered weather patterns, declines in freshwater availability and quality, and loss of biodiversity. Addressing these challenges will require well-conceived, science-based, simultaneous responses(More)