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Comparative analysis of multiple genomes in a phylogenetic framework dramatically improves the precision and sensitivity of evolutionary inference, producing more robust results than single-genome analyses can provide. The genomes of 12 Drosophila species, ten of which are presented here for the first time (sechellia, simulans, yakuba, erecta, ananassae,(More)
Sequence comparisons of genomes or expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from related organisms provide insight into functional conservation and diversification. We compare the sequences of ESTs from the male accessory gland of Drosophila simulans to their orthologs in its close relative Drosophila melanogaster, and demonstrate rapid divergence of many of these(More)
Two genomic regions with unusually low recombination rates in Drosophila melanogaster have normal levels of divergence but greatly reduced nucleotide diversity, apparently resulting from the fixation of advantageous mutations and the associated hitch-hiking effect. Here we show that for 20 gene regions from across the genome, the amount of nucleotide(More)
Genes whose products are involved in reproduction include some of the fastest-evolving genes found within the genomes of several organisms. Drosophila has long been used to study the function and evolutionary dynamics of genes thought to be involved in sperm competition and sexual conflict, two processes that have been hypothesized to drive the adaptive(More)
Rapid evolution driven by positive Darwinian selection is a recurrent theme in male reproductive protein evolution. In contrast, positive selection has never been demonstrated for female reproductive proteins. Here, we perform phylogeny-based tests on three female mammalian fertilization proteins and demonstrate positive selection promoting their(More)
We describe and test a Markov chain model of microsatellite evolution that can explain the different distributions of microsatellite lengths across different organisms and repeat motifs. Two key features of this model are the dependence of mutation rates on microsatellite length and a mutation process that includes both strand slippage and point mutation(More)
The alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) locus (ADH; alcohol: NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) of Drosophila pseudoobscura was cloned and sequenced. Forty-five percent of the "effectively silent sites" have changed between Adh in D. pseudoobscura of the obscura species group and the homologous DNA sequence in D. mauritiana, the latter representing the melanogaster(More)
In 2002 Kim and Stephan proposed a promising composite-likelihood method for localizing and estimating the fitness advantage of a recently fixed beneficial mutation. Here, we demonstrate that their composite-likelihood-ratio (CLR) test comparing selective and neutral hypotheses is not robust to undetected population structure or a recent bottleneck, with(More)
Understanding genetic evolution within species requires an accurate description of variation within and between populations and the ability to distinguish between the potential causes of an observed distribution of variation. In the cosmopolitan species Drosophila melanogaster, previous studies suggested that gene flow within and between continents is(More)
Analysis of variation at microsatellite DNA loci is widely used in studies of parentage, linkage and evolutionary history. The utility of microsatellites is primarily due to high levels of allelic diversity, believed to reflect mutation rates orders of magnitude higher than base pair substitutions at single-copy genes. For humans, mice, rats and pigs,(More)