Charles E. Young

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21 The mammalian lumbar spinal cord has the capability to generate locomotor activity in the 22 absence of input from the brain. Previously, we reported that transcutaneous electrical 23 stimulation of the spinal cord at vertebral level T11 can activate the locomotor circuitry in non-24 injured subjects when their legs are placed in a gravity neutral(More)
The findings and opinions expressed here do not necessarily reflect the positions or policies of the National Abstract Understanding the meaning of rational numbers and how to perform mathematical operations with those numbers seems to be a perennial problem in the United States for both adults and children. Based on previous work, we hypothesized that(More)
The findings and opinions expressed in this report are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the positions or policies of the (2011). How middle-school mathematics teachers use interim and benchmark assessment data. Abstract In 2001, the enactment of the No Child Left Behind Act intensified the pressure on school districts to raise test(More)
The trade-offs involved in allocating carotenoid pigments and food to healing and regrowing damaged caudal fin tissue v. other functions were examined in guppies Poecilia reticulata, a species in which females prefer males that display larger amounts of carotenoids in their skin. The guppies were derived from four natural populations in Trinidad that(More)
Protocol and service standards governing the session layer of the seven-layer reference model for OSI are expected to be finalized in 1983. These standards are being developed jointly by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT) groups, and will have wide(More)