Charles E. Smith

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This review focuses on the process of enamel maturation, a series of events associated with slow, progressive growth in the width and thickness of apatitic crystals. This developmental step causes gradual physical hardening and transformation of soft, newly formed enamel into one of the most durable mineralized tissues produced biologically. Enamel is the(More)
Interactions between bone and the reproductive system have until now been thought to be limited to the regulation of bone remodeling by the gonads. We now show that, in males, bone acts as a regulator of fertility. Using coculture assays, we demonstrate that osteoblasts are able to induce testosterone production by the testes, though they fail to influence(More)
A stochastic version of Kernell's (1968, 1972) model with cumulative afterhyperpolarization (AHP) was simulated. A characteristic of the model is that the AHP is the result of an increased potassium conductance (g K) that is time-dependent but not voltage-dependent. Quantal synaptic inputs are assumed to be the only source of interspike interval(More)
Intestinal guanylate cyclase mediates the action of the heat-stable enterotoxin to cause a decrease in intestinal fluid absorption and to increase chloride secretion, ultimately causing diarrhea. An endogenous ligand that acts on this guanylate cyclase has not previously been found. To search for a potential endogenous ligand, we utilized T84 cells, a human(More)
Formation of tooth enamel is a very complex process in which a specific set of proteins secreted by ameloblasts play a primordial role. As part of a screening procedure to identify novel proteins secreted by EO (enamel organ) cells of rat incisors, we isolated a partial cDNA fragment (EO-017) that is the homologue of the recently described mouse Amtn(More)
The intestinal hormone guanylin and bacterial heat-stable enterotoxins (STs) are members of a peptide family that activates intestinal membrane guanylate cyclase. Two different peptides that activate the human intestinal T84 cell guanylate cyclase have been purified from urine and intestinal mucosa of opossums (Didelphis virginiana). The highly acidic(More)
Spermatogenesis, a study of germ cell development, is a long, orderly, and well-defined process occurring in seminiferous tubules of the testis. It is a temporal event whereby undifferentiated spermatogonial germ cells evolve into maturing spermatozoa over a period of several weeks. Spermatogenesis is characterized by three specific functional phases:(More)
The objectives of this study were to measure pH in developing enamel at progressively older (more mature) stages of amelogenesis in vivo, and then to formulate synthetic enamel fluid mixtures that approximated these pH values for in vitro studies. The ultimate goal was to characterize the molecular weights of proteinases visualized by enzymograms incubated(More)
Enamelin is critical for proper dental enamel formation, and defects in the human enamelin gene cause autosomal dominant amelogenesis imperfecta. We used gene targeting to generate a knock-in mouse carrying a null allele of enamelin (Enam) that has a lacZ reporter gene replacing the Enam translation initiation site and gene sequences through exon 7. Correct(More)
In the continuously erupting rat incisor the ameloblasts progress through distinct stages associated with the secretion and maturation of enamel. We have examined the possibility that the so-called "postsecretory" ameloblasts of the maturation stage of amelogenesis remain biosynthetically active and are engaged in the synthesis, secretion, and degradation(More)