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New causative agents of rabies continue to emerge as shown by the recent description of four novel lyssaviruses from bats in Eurasia, Aravan (ARAV), Khujand (KHUV), Irkut (IRKV), and West Caucasian bat virus (WCBV). The effect of rabies vaccination prior to exposure to these new lyssaviruses was investigated in two animal models (i.e., Syrian hamsters and(More)
In the United States, during the past half-century, the number of humans to die of rabies dramatically decreased to an average of 1-2 per year. Although the number of deaths is low, most deaths occur because individuals are unaware that they had been exposed to and infected with rabies virus, and, therefore, they do not seek effective postexposure(More)
Diverse coronaviruses have been identified in bats from several continents but not from Africa. We identified group 1 and 2 coronaviruses in bats in Kenya, including SARS-related coronaviruses. The sequence diversity suggests that bats are well-established reservoirs for and likely sources of coronaviruses for many species, including humans.
The nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P) and glycoprotein (G) genes of Irkut and West Caucasian bat viruses (WCBV) were sequenced and compared with those of other lyssaviruses. N gene nucleotide identities provided unequivocal separation of all lyssavirus genotypes with an identity threshold of 82%. On this basis, Irkut virus should be considered as a new(More)
Rabies is an acute viral infection that is typically fatal. Most rabies modeling has focused on disease dynamics and control within terrestrial mammals (e.g., raccoons and foxes). As such, rabies in bats has been largely neglected until recently. Because bats have been implicated as natural reservoirs for several emerging zoonotic viruses, including(More)
Anti-rabies virus immunoglobulin combined with rabies vaccine protects humans from lethal rabies infections. For cost and safety reasons, replacement of the human or equine polyclonal immunoglobulin is advocated, and the use of rabies virus-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is recommended. We produced two previously described potent rabies(More)
These recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) update the previous recommendations on human rabies prevention (CDC. Human rabies prevention--United States, 1999: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR 1999;48 [No. RR-1]) and reflect the status of rabies and antirabies biologics in the(More)
We report the survival of a 15-year-old girl in whom clinical rabies developed one month after she was bitten by a bat. Treatment included induction of coma while a native immune response matured; rabies vaccine was not administered. The patient was treated with ketamine, midazolam, ribavirin, and amantadine. Probable drug-related toxic effects included(More)
Rhabdoviruses (family Rhabdoviridae) include a diversity of important pathogens of animals and plants. They share morphology and genome organization. The understanding of rhabdovirus phylogeny, ecology and evolution has progressed greatly during the last 30 years, due to enhanced surveillance and improved methodologies of molecular characterization. Along(More)
BACKGROUND Rabies is a notoriously underreported and neglected disease of low-income countries. This study aims to estimate the public health and economic burden of rabies circulating in domestic dog populations, globally and on a country-by-country basis, allowing an objective assessment of how much this preventable disease costs endemic countries. (More)