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Reducing the burden of infectious diseases that affect people in the developing world requires sustained collaborative drug discovery efforts. The quality of the chemical starting points for such projects is a key factor in improving the likelihood of clinical success, and so it is important to set clear go/no-go criteria for the progression of hit and lead(More)
We describe the development of novel benzimidazoles as small molecule histamine H4 receptor (H4R) antagonists and their profiling in rat early toxicity studies. The discovery and optimisation of a second series of pyrimidine based antagonists is then described culminating in the identification of the clinical development candidate 13 (PF-3893787). The(More)
Treatment of second-stage gambiense human African trypanosomiasis relied on toxic arsenic-based derivatives for over 50 years. The availability and subsequent use of eflornithine, initially in monotherapy and more recently in combination with nifurtimox (NECT), has drastically improved the prognosis of treated patients. However, NECT logistic and nursing(More)
A series of 6,7-dichloro-1,4-dihydro-(1H, 4H)-quinoxaline-2,3-diones (1-17) were prepared in which the 5-position substituent was a heterocyclylmethyl or 1-(heterocyclyl)-1-propyl group. Structure-activity relationships were evaluated where binding affinity for the glycine site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor was measured using the specific(More)
Each sensory hair cell in the ear is normally surrounded by supporting cells, which separate it from the next hair cell. In the mind bomb mutant, as a result of a failure of lateral inhibition, cells that would normally become supporting cells differentiate as hair cells instead, creating sensory patches that consist of hair cells only. This provides a(More)
The nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are key components of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). A major problem with the first approved NNRTIs was the emergence of mutations in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), in particular K103N and Y181C, which led to(More)
A major problem associated with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) for the treatment of HIV is their lack of resilience to mutations in the reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme. Using structural overlays of the known inhibitors efavirenz and capravirine complexed in RT as a starting point, and structure-based drug design techniques, we(More)
We prepared three discreet cohorts of potent non-nucleoside HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) based on the recently reported 3-cyanophenoxypyrazole lead 3. Several of these compounds displayed very promising anti-HIV activity in vitro, safety, pharmacokinetic and pharmaceutical profiles. We describe our analysis and conclusions leading to the(More)