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Classifier design for a given classification task needs to take into consideration both the complexity of the classifier and the size of the dataset that is available for training the classifier. With limited training data, as often is the situation in computer-aided diagnosis of medical images, a classifier with simple structure (e.g., a linear classifier)… (More)

Exact methods of inverting the two-dimensional (2-D) exponential Radon transform have been proposed by Bellini et al. (1979) and by Inouye et al. (1989), both of whom worked in the spatial-frequency domain to estimate the 2-D Fourier transform of the unattenuated sinogram; by Hawkins et al. (1988), who worked with circularly harmonic Bessel transforms; and… (More)

Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis provides the most comprehensive description of diagnostic accuracy available to date, because it estimates and reports all of the combinations of sensitivity and specificity that a diagnostic test is able to provide. After sketching the 6 levels at which diagnostic efficacy can be assessed, this paper… (More)

The likelihood ratio, or ideal observer, decision rule is known to be optimal for two-class classification tasks in the sense that it maximizes expected utility (or, equivalently, minimizes the Bayes risk). Furthermore, using this decision rule yields a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve which is never above the ROC curve produced using any other… (More)

It is well understood that the optimal classification decision variable is the likelihood ratio or any monotonic transformation of the likelihood ratio. An automated classifier which maps from an input space to one of the likelihood ratio family of decision variables is an optimal classifier or "ideal observer." Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are… (More)

A general approach that the authors proposed elsewhere reveals the intrinsic relationship among methods for inversion of the 2-D exponential Radon transform described by Bellini et al. (1979), by Tretiak and Metz (1980), by Hawkins et al. (1988), and by Inouye et al. (1989). Moreover, the authors' approach provides an infinite class of linear methods for… (More)

Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is well established in the evaluation of systems involving binary classification tasks. However, medical tests often require distinguishing among more than two diagnostic alternatives. The goal of this work was to develop an ROC analysis method for three-class classification tasks. Based on decision theory,… (More)

We express the performance of the N-class "guessing" observer in terms of the N2-N conditional probabilities which make up an N-class receiver operating characteristic (ROC) space, in a formulation in which sensitivities are eliminated in constructing the ROC space (equivalent to using false-negative fraction and false-positive fraction in a two-class… (More)

Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis measures the "diagnostic accuracy" of a medical imaging system, which represents the second level of diagnostic efficacy in the hierarchical model described by Fryback and Thornbury (Med Decis Making 11:88-94, 1991). After describing the historical origins of ROC analysis, this paper reviews the importance of… (More)