Charles E Hawkins

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Hair whorls and other macroscopic hair patterns are found in a variety of mammalian species, including humans. We show here that Frizzled6 (Fz6), one member of a large family of integral membrane Wnt receptors, controls macroscopic hair patterning in the mouse. Fz6 is expressed in the skin and hair follicles, and targeted deletion of the Fz6 gene produces(More)
Vascular permeability plays a key role in a wide array of life-threatening and sight-threatening diseases. Vascular endothelial growth factor can increase vascular permeability. Using a model system for nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, we found that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) effectively abated vascular endothelial growth factor-induced(More)
The female reproductive organ of angiosperms, the gynoecium, often consists of the fusion of multiple ovule-bearing carpels. It serves the important function of producing and protecting ovules as well as mediating pollination. The gynoecium has likely contributed to the tremendous success of angiosperms over their 160 million year history. In addition,(More)
Periciliary fluid balance is maintained by the coordination of sodium and chloride channels in the apical membranes of the airways. In the absence of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), chloride secretion is diminished and sodium reabsorption exaggerated. ClC-2, a pH- and voltage-dependent chloride channel, is present on the apical membranes(More)
CONTEXT Harassing and discriminating behaviors on the part of instructors or supervisors are known to affect the quality of work performed by medical students, influence their career decisions, and have other undetermined long-term consequences. OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence and forms of harassment and discrimination experienced by 1996 medical(More)
CONTEXT In November 1994, Oregon became the first US state to legalize physician-assisted suicide (PAS) as an option for end-of-life care. OBJECTIVE This study compares the attitudes and experiences of medical students in Oregon regarding PAS to those of fourth-year medical students in the United States outside Oregon. DESIGN A survey of all students at(More)
Fragaria vesca is a species of diploid strawberry being developed as a model for the octoploid garden strawberry. This work sequenced and compared the genomes of three F. vesca accessions: 'Hawaii 4', 'Rügen', and 'Yellow Wonder'. Genome-scale analyses of shared and distinct SNPs among these three accessions have revealed that 'Rügen' and 'Yellow Wonder'(More)
Chlorine oxidants (chlorine gas, sodium hypochlorite, and calcium hypochlorite) are used as biocides to control fouling in seawater cooled power generating plants and to kill pathogens in sewage effluents entering estuarine waters. Organisms killed include algae, fungi, bacteria, barnacles, oysters, and clams. Use of these chemicals in saline waters results(More)