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Since 1996, 16 states and the District of Columbia in the United States have enacted legislation to decriminalize marijuana for medical use. Although marijuana is the most commonly detected nonalcohol drug in drivers, its role in crash causation remains unsettled. To assess the association between marijuana use and crash risk, the authors performed a(More)
BACKGROUND In 2005, the US Congress allocated $612 million for a national Safe Routes to School (SRTS) program to encourage walking and bicycling to schools. We analyzed motor vehicle crash data to assess the effectiveness of SRTS interventions in reducing school-aged pedestrian injury in New York City. METHODS Using geocoded motor vehicle crash data for(More)
Recent animal studies have shown that commonly used anesthetic agents may have serious neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between surgery for hernia repair and the risk of behavioral and developmental disorders in young children. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of children who(More)
BACKGROUND In vitro and in vivo studies of anesthetics have demonstrated serious neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. However, the clinical relevance of these findings to children undergoing anesthesia remains unclear. Using data from a sibling birth cohort, we assessed the association between exposure to anesthesia in the setting of surgery in(More)
OBJECTIVE In the United States, per-capita opioid dispensing has increased concurrently with analgesic-related mortality and morbidity since the 1990s. To deter diversion and abuse of controlled substances, most states have implemented electronic prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs). We evaluated the impact of state PDMPs on opioid dispensing. (More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE We assess emergency department (ED) utilization by a population whose health care encounters can be tracked and quantified for behavioral and mental health conditions in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. METHODS We assessed presentations to EDs by using Medicaid analytic extract files for adult New York State(More)
The objective of this review was to assess the effectiveness of bystander naloxone administration and overdose education programs by synthesizing quantitative results reported in the research literature. Studies meeting predefined criteria were identified and reviewed, and their results were synthesized through meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95%(More)
AIM To conduct a comprehensive analysis of the conflicting evidence on substance use and misuse following mass traumas such as terrorist incidents. METHODS We reviewed and synthesized evidence from 31 population-based studies using Bayesian meta-analysis and meta-regression. RESULTS The majority of the studied were conducted in the aftermath of the(More)
INTRODUCTION While several population-based studies have documented behavioral health disturbances following terrorist attacks, a number of mental health service utilization analyses present conflicting conclusions. PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to determine if mental health service utilization increased following a terrorist attack by assessing(More)
BACKGROUND Over the past decade, the safety of anesthetic agents in children has been questioned after the discovery that immature animals exposed to anesthesia display apoptotic neurodegeneration and long-term cognitive deficiencies. We examined the association between exposure to anesthesia in children under age 3 and outcomes in language, cognitive(More)