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Clinical investigations have demonstrated a link between use of the sulfone cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, rofecoxib, and increased risk for atherothrombotic events. This increased risk was not observed for a sulfonamide COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib), indicating a potential non-enzymatic mechanism for rofexocib. To test this hypothesis, we compared the(More)
Random projection architectures such as Echo state networks (ESNs) and Extreme Learning Machines (ELMs) use a network containing a randomly connected hidden layer and train only the output weights, overcoming the problems associated with the complex and computationally demanding training algorithms traditionally used to train neural networks, particularly(More)
OBJECTIVE To quantify agreement between three clinically usable methods of measuring spasticity. METHODS Patients with a first stroke who had no useful functional movement in the upper limb within six weeks from stroke onset were eligible to participate. Spasticity at the wrist joint was simultaneously measured using three methods, during an externally(More)
Quantitative measurements of diffusion can provide important information about how proteins and lipids interact with their environment within the cell and the effective size of the diffusing species. Confocal fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) is one of the most widely accessible approaches to measure protein and lipid diffusion in living(More)
Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) using confocal laser scanning microscopes (confocal FRAP) has become a valuable technique for studying the diffusion of biomolecules in cells. However, two-dimensional confocal FRAP sometimes yields results that vary with experimental setups, such as different bleaching protocols and bleaching spot sizes. In(More)
Studies of the diffusion of proteins and lipids in the plasma membrane of cells have long pointed to the presence of membrane domains. A major challenge in the field of membrane biology has been to characterize the various cellular structures and mechanisms that impede free diffusion in cell membranes and determine the consequences that membrane(More)
Multivalent glycolipid binding toxins such as cholera toxin have the capacity to cluster glycolipids, a process thought to be important for their functional uptake into cells. In contrast to the highly dynamic properties of lipid probes and many lipid-anchored proteins, the B-subunit of cholera toxin (CTxB) diffuses extremely slowly when bound to its(More)
Statin drugs inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and share the common mechanism of lowering circulating levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, a powerful indicator of risk for cardiovascular disease. Large clinical trials have documented the benefit of hypolipidemic therapy for both primary and secondary(More)
Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) is a powerful, versatile, and widely accessible tool to monitor molecular dynamics in living cells that can be performed using modern confocal microscopes. Although the basic principles of FRAP are simple, quantitative FRAP analysis requires careful experimental design, data collection, and analysis. In this(More)
How the plasma membrane is bent to accommodate clathrin-independent endocytosis remains uncertain. Recent studies suggest Shiga and cholera toxin induce membrane curvature required for their uptake into clathrin-independent carriers by binding and cross-linking multiple copies of their glycosphingolipid receptors on the plasma membrane. But it remains(More)