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BACKGROUND Quantification of the disease burden caused by different risks informs prevention by providing an account of health loss different to that provided by a disease-by-disease analysis. No complete revision of global disease burden caused by risk factors has been done since a comparative risk assessment in 2000, and no previous analysis has assessed(More)
BACKGROUND The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update(More)
BACKGROUND About a third of the global HIV infections outside sub-Saharan Africa are related to injecting drug use (IDU), and this accounts for a growing proportion of persons living with HIV. This paper is a response to the need to monitor the state of the HIV epidemic as it relates to IDU and the availability of HIV treatment and harm reduction services(More)
BACKGROUND In 2004, tuberculosis (TB) was responsible for 2.5% of global mortality (among men 3.1%; among women 1.8%) and 2.2% of global burden of disease (men 2.7%; women 1.7%). The present work portrays accumulated evidence on the association between alcohol consumption and TB with the aim to clarify the nature of the relationship. METHODS A systematic(More)
Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for many chronic diseases and conditions. The average volume of alcohol consumed, consumption patterns, and quality of the alcoholic beverages consumed likely have a causal impact on the mortality and morbidity related to chronic diseases and conditions. Twenty-five chronic disease and condition codes in the(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the performance of the Xhosa Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version 2.3 (DISC-2.3) in a community study of African children and adolescents in Khayelitsha, a largely informal settlement area in Cape Town, South Africa. METHOD A cross-sectional community study of 500 youths aged 6 to 16 years was undertaken using a(More)
BACKGROUND This study examined cross-sectional data collected from substance-using female sex workers (FSW) and non-sex workers (non-SW) in Pretoria, South Africa, who entered a randomized controlled trial. METHODS Women who reported alcohol use and recently engaging in sex work or unprotected sex were recruited for a randomized study. The study sample (N(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the impact of the Women's Health CoOp (WHC) on drug abstinence among vulnerable women having HIV counselling and testing (HCT). DESIGN Randomised trial conducted with multiple follow-ups. SETTING 15 communities in Cape Town, South Africa. PARTICIPANTS 720 drug-using women aged 18-33, randomised to an intervention (360) or one of(More)
Seasonal trends in South African suicide incidence were investigated with a view to ascertaining whether they are consistent with those in the northern hemisphere regarding: (1) the existence of the expected pattern; (2) this pattern being more pronounced for less urbanized groups; and (3) the presence of a secondary fall peak for youth and females.(More)
The present paper describes the possible connection between alcohol consumption and adherence to medicine used to treat human deficiency viral (HIV) infection. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has a positive influence on longevity in patients with HIV, substantially reducing morbidity and mortality, including resource-poor settings such as South(More)