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BACKGROUND The control of Clostridium difficile infections is an international clinical challenge. The incidence of C difficile in England declined by roughly 80% after 2006, following the implementation of national control policies; we tested two hypotheses to investigate their role in this decline. First, if C difficile infection declines in England were(More)
This paper shows how a formal notion of refinement may be defined for models, and model components, expressed in the Unified Modeling Language (UML). A formal, behavioural semantics is given to combinations of class, object, and state diagrams, using the notation of Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP); this semantics is adequate for the analysis of(More)
1. An enzyme from Escherichia coli 9723 that reduces adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-sulphatophosphate to inorganic sulphite is described. Extracts of E. coli K(12) and Bacillus subtilis 1379 contain a similar enzyme. 2. This reductase and sulphite reductase (EC of E. coli 9723, E. coli K(12) and of B. subtilis are repressed by growth in the presence of(More)
Effective data sharing, across government agencies and other organisations, relies upon agreed meanings and representations. A key, technological challenge in electronic governance is to ensure that the meaning of data items is accurately recorded, and accessible in an economical---effectively, automatic---fashion. In response, a variety of data and(More)
BACKGROUND In molecular profiling studies of cancer patients, experimental and clinical data are combined in order to understand the clinical heterogeneity of the disease: clinical information for each subject needs to be linked to tumour samples, macromolecules extracted, and experimental results. This may involve the integration of clinical data sets from(More)
This paper explains how object models written in the Unified Modeling Language (UML) can be translated into formal, behavioural descriptions and used as a basis for automatic test generation. The behavioural descriptions are written in a language of communicating state machines: the Intermediate Format (IF). The translation from UML to IF is based upon an(More)
This paper explains how semantic frameworks can be used to support successful e-Government initiatives by connecting system design to a shared understanding of interactions and processes. It shows how metadata standards and repositories can be used to establish and maintain such an understanding, and how they can be used in the automatic generation and(More)
To make reliable, safe, and effective use of data outside the context of its collection, we require an adequate understanding of its meaning. In data-intensive science, as in many other applications of computing, this necessitates the association of each item of data with complex, detailed metadata. The most important, most useful piece of metadata is often(More)