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This paper defines a formal semantics for a subset of the Unified Modeling Language (UML). It shows how suitable combinations of class, object, state, and sequence diagrams can be associated with patterns of interaction, expressed in the event notation of Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP). The diagram semantics is then extended to give a meaning to(More)
BACKGROUND The control of Clostridium difficile infections is an international clinical challenge. The incidence of C difficile in England declined by roughly 80% after 2006, following the implementation of national control policies; we tested two hypotheses to investigate their role in this decline. First, if C difficile infection declines in England were(More)
The CancerGrid approach to clinical trials information systems is based on a metamodel developed from the CONSORT statement of best practice in reporting randomised controlled trials. The metamodel is instantiated with metadata elements drawn from a repository, to create a model of a particular clinical trial. The model is then used to derive automatically(More)
Effective data sharing, across government agencies and other organisations, relies upon agreed meanings and representations. A key, technological challenge in electronic governance is to ensure that the meaning of data items is accurately recorded, and accessible in an economical---effectively, automatic---fashion. In response, a variety of data and(More)
In molecular profiling studies of cancer patients, experimental and clinical data are combined in order to understand the clinical heterogeneity of the disease: clinical information for each subject needs to be linked to tumour samples, macromolecules extracted, and experimental results. This may involve the integration of clinical data sets from several(More)
This paper explains how object models written in the Unified Modeling Language (UML) can be translated into formal, behavioural descriptions and used as a basis for automatic test generation. The behavioural descriptions are written in a language of communicating state machines: the Intermediate Format (IF). The translation from UML to IF is based upon an(More)
This paper explains how semantic frameworks can be used to support successful e-Government initiatives by connecting system design to a shared understanding of interactions and processes. It shows how metadata standards and repositories can be used to establish and maintain such an understanding, and how they can be used in the automatic generation and(More)
To make reliable, safe, and effective use of data outside the context of its collection, we require an adequate understanding of its meaning. In data-intensive science, as in many other applications of computing, this necessitates the association of each item of data with complex, detailed metadata. The most important, most useful piece of metadata is often(More)