Charles C. Church
Highly Influential Citations45
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The purpose of this article is to present the practicing sonographer and sonologist with an overview of the biohazards of ultrasound and guidelines for safe use.
High‐amplitude radial pulsations of a single gas bubble in several glycerine and water mixtures have been observed in an acoustic stationary wave system at acoustic pressure amplitudes on the order… Continue Reading
Understanding the behavior of cavitation bubbles driven by ultrasonic fields is an important problem in biomedical acoustics. Keller-Miksis equation, which can account for the large amplitude… Continue Reading
As currently defined, the mechanical index (MI) uses only two parameters, peak rarefactional pressure and center frequency. The effect of another important factor, the pulse length (LP), was… Continue Reading
Biomedical ultrasound may induce adverse effects in patients by either thermal or non-thermal means. Temperatures above normal can adversely affect biological systems, but effects also may be… Continue Reading
Gas bubbles of sufficient size to serve as cavitation nuclei may form spontaneously in tissue in regions of very low interfacial tension. In the absence of an acoustic wave or other mechanical… Continue Reading
The threshold for lysis of erythrocytes suspended at concentrations of 0.5-1% in saline or plasma in rotating cylindrical exposure vessels is approximately spatial peak intensities of 2 W/cm2 at 1… Continue Reading
This review examines the nonthermal physical mechanisms by which ultrasound can harm tissue in postnatal patients. First the physical nature of the more significant interactions between ultrasound… Continue Reading
This note compares theoretical predictions of pressure waves scattered by free gas bubbles with recent acoustical determinations of cavitation thresholds for individual microbubbles of the… Continue Reading
The thermal index (TI) has been used as a relative indicator of thermal risk during diagnostic ultrasound examinations for many years. It is useful in providing feedback to the clinician or… Continue Reading