Charles C. Obihara

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BACKGROUND Reverse-transcriptase quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has become the gold standard for the diagnosis of human enterovirus (EV) and parechovirus (HPeV) infections. The detection rate of RT-qPCR in different pediatric body specimens has not been compared prospectively in a multicentre study. OBJECTIVES This study(More)
Human non-polio enterovirus (EV) is the most important cause of aseptic meningitis in children. Only a few studies report the lack of cerobrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis in children with confirmed EV meningitis; however, the characteristics of these children have not been well defined. This paper describes the clinical and laboratory features of EV(More)
Acute respiratory tract infections are an important public health problem. Sensitive and rapid diagnostic techniques have been developed and are used in daily clinical practice. Here we evaluate the clinical relevance of detecting 20 common respiratory pathogens by molecular methods in a general pediatric clinic. Nasopharynx samples of children < 18 years(More)
Enterovirus (EV) and human parechovirus (HPeV) are a major cause of infection in childhood. A rapid diagnostic test may improve the management of patients with EV and HPeV infection. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of the GeneXpert enterovirus assay (GXEA) for detection of EV RNA compared to a user-developed reverse-transcriptase (RT)(More)
The increase in the global incidence of atopic disease and asthma during the past few decades has been ascribed to environmental factors, including the reduction in exposure to serious infections. The hypothetical framework to explain the inverse relationship between infections and atopic disease and asthma has been called the "hygiene hypothesis." Animal(More)
Enterovirus and parechovirus are a frequent cause of infection in children. This review is an overview of what is known from enterovirus and parechovirus infection in children and contains information about the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of enterovirus and parechovirus infection in children.(More)
BACKGROUND Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a rare complication in children with post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN). CASE DESCRIPTION An 8-year-old boy was brought to the emergency department with seizures preceded by acute headache attacks and vomiting. On examination the boy was hypertensive with periorbital edema.(More)
BACKGROUND Human non-polio enterovirus (EV) and human parechovirus (HPeV) are important pathogens of viral infection and aseptic meningitis in children. The aim of this study is to prospectively compare the incidence, clinical signs, blood and cerebrospinal fluid in EV and HPeV infected children. OBJECTIVES To compare the clinical symptoms and laboratory(More)
A 4-day old neonate presented with a midline swelling located on the back of its head. The two most likely causes of the swelling were cephalohematoma, which is self-limiting and carries a benign prognosis, and encephalocele, often associated with central nervous system malformations. Evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a subperiosteal(More)
The epidemiological relation between mycobacterial infection and the prevalence of atopic disease in humans is still unclear. This is in contrast to studies in murine models in which a clear suppression of atopic symptoms was observed after exposure to mycobacteria or mycobacterial products. We therefore wanted to provide a systematic overview of the(More)