Charles C. Chang

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The debate on the effectiveness of foreign aid has intensified in recent years as aid has come under increasing budgetary pressures in donor countries. Whatever the merits of the opposing arguments, the fundamental issue arises of whether conventionally-used measures of aid such as ODA, that lump together grants and loans, accurately reflect true aid flows.(More)
A reactive navigation system for an autonomous mobile robot in unstructured dynamic environments is presented. The motion of moving obstacles is estimated for robot motion planning and obstacle avoidance. A multisensor-based obstacle predictor is utilized to obtain obstacle-motion information. Sensory data from a CCD camera and multiple ultrasonic range(More)
" Free-joint manipulators: motion control under second-order nonholonomic constraints, " in Proc. IEEE/RSJ Int. , " Control of mechanical systems with second-order nonholonomic constraints: underactuated manipulators, " in Proc. connected with free joints and its shape control, " in Proc. IEEE Conf. Chaos and nonlinear control of a nonholonomic free-joint(More)
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