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Previous analyses of knowledge of results (KR) and motor learning have generally confounded the transient performance effects as shown when KR is present and the relatively permanent (i.e., learned) effects that we argue should be evaluated on a transfer test without KR. In this review, we classify investigations according to this distinction, and a number(More)
The present paper focused on the role of mechanical factors arising from the multijoint structure of the musculoskeletal system and their use in the control of different patterns of cyclical elbow-wrist movements. Across five levels of cycling frequency (from 0.45 Hz up to 3.05 Hz), three movement patterns were analyzed: (1) unidirectional, including(More)
Transformations of the underlying movement control of rapid sequential (reversal) responses were examined as the movement amplitude (Experiment 1) and moment of inertia (Experiment 2) were altered, with constant movement time. Increases in amplitude and inertia were both met by sharply increased joint torques with a constant temporal structure, suggesting(More)
When the left and right hands produce 2 different rhythms simultaneously, coordination of the hands is difficult unless the rhythms can be integrated into a unified temporal pattern. In the present study, the authors investigated whether a similar account can be applied to the spatial domain. Participants (N = 8) produced a movement trajectory of(More)
Modifications to the underlying motor control of rapid reversal movements (flexion-extension of the elbow) to accommodate experimentally induced changes in the movement time (MT) with constant movement amplitude were examined in man. MT was altered between conditions via instructions and feedback, resulting in seven distinct MT levels (from 100 to 250 ms to(More)
Unidirectional positioning movements with spatiotemporal constraints were examined as a test of impulse-timing theory (Schmidt, 1976; 1980; Wallace, 1981). Movements were examined at the kinematic, kinetic, and neuromuscular levels in three experiments. In the first experiment, displacement was held constant while five different movement times were(More)
The present studies examined the nature of kinematic interlimb interference during bilateral elbow movements of 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 frequency ratios and the manner in which subjects cope with coordination bias. Analysis of movement trajectories in the first experiment indicated progressively greater angular velocity assimilation across 2:1 and 3:1 conditions.(More)
The control of a dynamic bimanual task was examined by manipulating two independent factors that potentially influence interlimb interference. Subjects attempted to perform a unidirectional movement with either their preferred or nonpreferred arm while concurrently producing a sequential movement with the contralateral arm. The magnitude of force required(More)
Past studies on bimanual coordination have revealed a general preference to move the limbs in a symmetrical fashion, also denoted as the in-phase mode. Its counterpart, the asymmetrical or anti-phase mode, is performed with lower degrees of accuracy and stability. This ubiquitous tendency to activate the homologous muscle groups is referred to as the muscle(More)