Charles B. Nemeroff

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CONTEXT In addition to trauma exposure, other factors contribute to risk for development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. Both genetic and environmental factors are contributory, with child abuse providing significant risk liability. OBJECTIVE To increase understanding of genetic and environmental risk factors as well as their(More)
CONTEXT Evidence suggests that early adverse experiences play a preeminent role in development of mood and anxiety disorders and that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems may mediate this association. OBJECTIVE To determine whether early-life stress results in a persistent sensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to mild stress in(More)
Although the fact that genetic predisposition and environmental exposures interact to shape development and function of the human brain and, ultimately, the risk of psychiatric disorders has drawn wide interest, the corresponding molecular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. We found that a functional polymorphism altering chromatin interaction between(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with chronic forms of major depression are difficult to treat, and the relative efficacy of medications and psychotherapy is uncertain. METHODS We randomly assigned 681 adults with a chronic nonpsychotic major depressive disorder to 12 weeks of outpatient treatment with nefazodone (maximal dose, 600 mg per day), the cognitive(More)
Epidemiologic studies indicate that children exposed to early adverse experiences are at increased risk for the development of depression, anxiety disorders, or both. Persistent sensitization of central nervous system (CNS) circuits as a consequence of early life stress, which are integrally involved in the regulation of stress and emotion, may represent(More)
Several new antidepressants that inhibit the serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine transporters (NET) have been introduced into clinical practice the past several years. This report focuses on the further pharmacologic characterization of nefazodone and its metabolites within the serotonergic and noradrenergic systems, in comparison with other(More)
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a 41 amino acid-containing peptide, appears to mediate not only the endocrine but also the autonomic and behavioral responses to stress. Stress, in particular early-life stress such as childhood abuse and neglect, has been associated with a higher prevalence rate of affective and anxiety disorders in adulthood. In the(More)
Childhood trauma is a potent risk factor for developing depression in adulthood, particularly in response to additional stress. We here summarize results from a series of clinical studies suggesting that childhood trauma in humans is associated with sensitization of the neuroendocrine stress response, glucocorticoid resistance, increased central(More)
CONTEXT Genetic inheritance and developmental life stress both contribute to major depressive disorder in adults. Child abuse and trauma alter the endogenous stress response, principally corticotropin-releasing hormone and its downstream effectors, suggesting that a gene x environment interaction at this locus may be important in depression. OBJECTIVE To(More)