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In the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), we examined the temporal unfolding of declining performance on tests of episodic memory (Free Recall on the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test), executive function (Category Fluency, Letter Fluency, and Trails), and Verbal Intelligence (Nelson, 1982; American Version of the Nelson Adult Reading Test(More)
BACKGROUND The role of blood pressure (BP) as a risk factor for dementia is complex and may be age dependent. In very old individuals, low BP might increase risk for dementia, perhaps by reducing cerebral perfusion pressure. METHODS The association between BP and dementia was examined in the Bronx Aging Study, a prospective study of 488 community-dwelling(More)
There are two different conceptions of the innate basis for numerical abilities. On the one hand, it is claimed that infants possess a 'number module' that enables them to construct concepts of the exact numerosities of sets upon which arithmetic develops (e.g. Butterworth, 1999; Gelman & Gallistel, 1978). On the other hand, it has been proposed that(More)
OBJECTIVES Gait variability is an important indicator of impaired mobility in older adults; however, little is known about the meaning of change in gait variability over time. This study estimated clinically meaningful change in measures of gait variability using both distribution- and anchor-based approaches. DESIGN Community-based observational cohort(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the relative rates of dementia in initially nondemented subjects with and without memory impairment defined by baseline free recall from the Free and Cued Selective Reminding (FCSR) test. BACKGROUND Our approach to identifying persons at high risk for future dementia is to show the presence of memory impairment not caused by other(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between white matter abnormalities and impairment of gait and balance in older persons. METHODS Quantitative MRI was used to evaluate the brain tissue compartments of 28 older individuals separated into normal and impaired groups on the basis of mobility performance testing using the Short Physical Performance(More)
BACKGROUND Recent investigations using MRI suggest that older persons with mobility impairment have a greater volume of abnormal cerebral white matter compared with persons with normal mobility, thus raising the possibility that those with impairment have lesions in areas critical for the control of mobility. OBJECTIVE To utilize automated image analysis(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the cognitive reserve hypothesis by examining the effect of education on memory decline during the preclinical course of dementia. BACKGROUND Low education is a well known risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). Persons destined to develop AD experience an accelerated rate of decline in cognitive ability, particularly in memory. The(More)
BACKGROUND Persons destined to develop dementia experience an accelerated rate of decline in cognitive ability, particularly in memory. Early life education and participation in cognitively stimulating leisure activities later in life are 2 factors thought to reflect cognitive reserve, which may delay the onset of the memory decline in the preclinical(More)
Dementia is characterized by accelerated cognitive decline before and after diagnosis as compared to normal ageing. Determining the time at which that rate of decline begins to accelerate in persons who will develop dementia is important both in describing the natural history of the disease process and in identifying the optimal time window for which(More)