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Acoustic analyses of normal voiced and whispered Mandarin Chinese reveal significant differences in duration and intensity among the four lexical tones, differences that are moreover similar across the two speech genres. In contrast to previous claims, however, these differences among the tones are found to shrink in whisper rather than being exaggerated to(More)
This study investigated the production of five Mandarin and English sibilant fricatives by heritage speakers of Mandarin in comparison to native speakers and late learners. Almost all speakers were found to distinguish the Mandarin retroflex and alveolo-palatal, as well as the Mandarin alveolo-palatal and English palato-alveolar. However, fewer(More)
This study tested the hypothesis that heritage speakers of a minority language, due to their childhood experience with two languages, would outperform late learners in producing contrast: language-internal phonological contrast, as well as cross-linguistic phonetic contrast between similar, yet acoustically distinct, categories of different languages. To(More)