Charles Anthony Dinarello

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To understand the role of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) in disease, investigators have studied how production of the different members of the IL-1 family is controlled, the various biologic activities of IL-1, the distinct and various functions of the IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) family, and the complexity of intracellular signaling. Mice(More)
More than any other cytokine family, the interleukin (IL)-1 family is closely linked to the innate immune response. This linkage became evident upon the discovery that the cytoplasmic domain of the IL-1 receptor type I is highly homologous to the cytoplasmic domains of all Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Thus, fundamental inflammatory responses such as the(More)
Ten years ago the cloning of two interleukin-1 molecules (IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta) resolved the question of whether a single polypeptide could evoke a wide variety of biological effects. During the past decade, the biology of IL-1 has greatly expanded our understanding of how the host responds to external challenges, such as injury and infection, as well(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES To review the concept of proinflammatory cytokines. DESIGN Review of published literature. SETTING Academic (university hospital). RESULTS Cytokines are regulators of host responses to infection, immune responses, inflammation, and trauma. Some cytokines act to make disease worse (proinflammatory), whereas others serve to reduce(More)
The function of interleukin 37 (IL-37; formerly IL-1 family member 7) has remained elusive. Expression of IL-37 in macrophages or epithelial cells almost completely suppressed production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas the abundance of these cytokines increased with silencing of endogenous IL-37 in human blood cells. Anti-inflammatory cytokines were(More)
More than any other cytokine family, the IL-1 family of ligands and receptors is primarily associated with acute and chronic inflammation. The cytosolic segment of each IL-1 receptor family member contains the Toll-IL-1-receptor domain. This domain is also present in each Toll-like receptor, the receptors that respond to microbial products and viruses.(More)
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) shares several biologic properties with IL-1, including hematopoietin-1 activity and stimulation of T cells. Because many of their biologic activities overlap, we developed and used a specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) for IL-6 to compare production of this cytokine on a molar basis with that of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and tumor necrosis(More)
We describe the gene structure, regulation, signal transduction. and functions of a cytokine, interleukin (IL)-32. An IL-18 unresponsive cell was converted to a responsive cell by transfection of the IL-18 receptor beta chain, and IL-18-induced microarray revealed high expression of a cytokine-like gene. Although IL-32 does not share sequence homology with(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis is not restricted to the neuronal compartment, but includes strong interactions with immunological mechanisms in the brain. Misfolded and aggregated proteins bind to pattern recognition receptors on microglia and astroglia, and trigger an innate immune response characterised by release of(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a central mediator of innate immunity and inflammation. The IL-1 family includes seven ligands with agonist activity (IL-1α and IL-1β, IL-18, IL-33, IL-36α, IL-36β, IL-36γ), three receptor antagonists (IL-1Ra, IL-36Ra, IL-38), and an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-37). Members of the IL-1 Receptor (IL-1R) family include six receptor(More)