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Twenty-eight patients, all of whom developed multiple sclerosis before 16 years of age and all from a well-defined geographical population (Grampian, north-eastern Scotland) were retrospectively studied. Age at presentation, presenting features and interval between first and second attacks are discussed. Follow-up ranged from three to 47 years and adult(More)
For N ≥ 3 and p > 1, we consider the nonlinear Schrödinger equation i∂ t w + ∆ x w + V (x) |w| p−1 w = 0 where w = w(t, x) : R × R N → C with a potential V that decays at infinity like |x| −b for some b ∈ (0, 2). A standing wave is a solution of the form w(t, x) = e iλt u(x) where λ > 0 and u : R N → R. For 1 < p < 1 + (4 − 2b)/(N − 2), we establish the(More)
Stress, either psychological or physical, can have a dramatic impact on the immune system. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a pivotal role in the induction of innate and adaptive immune response. We have reported that stress modulates the immune response in a TLR4-dependent manner. However, the mechanisms underlying TLR4-mediated signaling in stress(More)
Mouse brain expresses three principal glucose transporters. Glut1 is an endothelial marker and is the principal glucose transporter of the blood-brain barrier. Glut3 and Glut6 are expressed in glial cells and neural cells. A mouse line with a null allele for Glut3 has been developed. The Glut3(-/-) genotype is intrauterine lethal by 7days post-coitis, but(More)
We tested the hypothesis that glucose plus insulin determine the rate of fat oxidation in humans by controlling the rate of fatty acid entrance into the mitochondria. We gave constant infusions of [1-13C]oleate, a long-chain fatty acid, and [1-14C]octanoate, a medium-chain fatty acid, for 3 h in seven volunteers (basal). Immediately after the basal period,(More)
Opiates have been shown to inhibit cell growth and trigger apoptosis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We have previously shown that morphine induces Fas expression and promotes Fas-mediated apoptosis. Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which morphine modulates apoptosis in human Jurkat cells. Morphine-induced apoptosis was(More)
Psychological and physical stress can alter the immune system in both humans and animals. We have reported that mice subjected to chronic 12-h daily physical restraint for 2 days showed dramatic apoptosis in splenocytes. To identify genes that contribute to the splenocyte apoptosis, we compare gene expression in the spleens of restrained and unstressed mice(More)
Evaluation of insulin sensitivity in 12 patients with myotonic dystrophy gave results different from those found in other insulin-resistant conditions. Nine of our subjects were insensitive to exogenous insulin, but only three had elevated fasting insulin concentrations. Eight had an excessive insulin response to a glucose challenge. Monocyte insulin(More)