Learn More
ATP-sensitive potassium (K[ATP]) channels are an essential component of glucose-dependent insulin secretion in pancreatic islet beta-cells. These channels comprise the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR1) and Kir6.2, a member of the inward rectifier K+ channel family. Mutations in the SUR1 subunit are associated with familial hyperinsulinism (HI) (MIM:256450), an(More)
BACKGROUND A new form of congenital hyperinsulinism characterized by hypoglycemia and hyperammonemia was described recently. We hypothesized that this syndrome of hyperinsulinism and hyperammonemia was caused by excessive activity of glutamate dehydrogenase, which oxidizes glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate and which is a potential regulator of insulin(More)
A defect in intracellular uptake of carnitine has been identified in patients with severe carnitine deficiency. To define the clinical manifestations of this disorder, the presenting features of 15 affected infants and children were examined. Progressive cardiomyopathy, with or without chronic muscle weakness, was the most common presentation (median age of(More)
There are now nine inherited diseases that have been identified in the pathway of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, including LCAD, MCAD, SCAD, and HMG-CoA lyase deficiencies, two forms each of CPT and MAD deficiencies and an incompletely characterized disorder of primary carnitine deficiency. The varied range of clinical manifestations in this new group(More)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) in children results from autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells, leading to insufficient production of insulin. A number of genetic determinants of T1D have already been established through candidate gene studies, primarily within the major histocompatibility complex but also within other loci. To identify new genetic factors(More)
The mechanism of insulin dysregulation in children with hyperinsulinism associated with inactivating mutations of short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCHAD) was examined in mice with a knock-out of the hadh gene (hadh(-/-)). The hadh(-/-) mice had reduced levels of plasma glucose and elevated plasma insulin levels, similar to children with SCHAD(More)
A prospective study of 14 patients (ages 6 months to 33 years) with glycogen storage disease, Type I (GSD-I) was carried out in order to define the character and frequency of renal dysfunction. A marked increase in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was documented in virtually all subjects, with the mean GFR raised by approximately 50%, to the range of(More)
Familial hyperinsulinism (HI) is a disorder of pancreatic beta-cell function characterized by persistent hyperinsulinism despite severe hypoglycemia. To define the molecular genetic basis of HI in Ashkenazi Jews, 25 probands were screened for mutations in the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR1) gene by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of(More)
Glutamate dehydrogenase is found in all organisms and catalyses the oxidative deamination of l-glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate. However, only animal GDH utilizes both NAD(H) or NADP(H) with comparable efficacy and exhibits a complex pattern of allosteric inhibition by a wide variety of small molecules. The major allosteric inhibitors are GTP and NADH and the(More)