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The Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) trans-activates viral gene expression and is obligatory for virus replication. Tat function is mediated through a sequence termed TAR that comprises part of the 5'-noncoding region of all HIV-1 mRNAs. This region forms a stable stem-loop structure in vitro. Recent evidence indicates that Tat(More)
Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is one of man's commonest hereditary diseases. Several studies have implicated a defect in DNA mismatch repair in the pathogenesis of this disease. In particular, hMSH2 and hMLH1 homologues of the bacterial DNA mismatch repair genes mutS and mutL, respectively, were shown to be mutated in a subset of HNPCC(More)
Some cases of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) are due to alterations in a mutS-related mismatch repair gene. A search of a large database of expressed sequence tags derived from random complementary DNA clones revealed three additional human mismatch repair genes, all related to the bacterial mutL gene. One of these genes (hMLH1) resides(More)
The transcription initiation signals for retroviruses lie within the long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences that flank the integrated provirus. Two subtypes of human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV) are associated with different disease phenotypes. In this article it is shown that marked differences exist in the ability of LTR sequences of these subtypes to(More)
Interleukin-8 (IL-8), a chemotactic cytokine for T lymphocytes and neutrophils, is induced in several cell types by a variety of stimuli including the inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha TNF-alpha. Several cis elements, including a binding site for the inducible transcription factor NF-kappa B, have been identified in the regulatory(More)
We have isolated a human cDNA clone encoding the mammalian homolog of stanniocalcin (STC), a calcium- and phosphate-regulating hormone that was first described in fishes where it functions in preventing hypercalcemia. STC has a unique amino acid sequence and, until now, has remained one of the few polypeptide hormones never described in higher vertebrates.(More)
NF-kappa B is an inducible transcription factor comprised of a 50-kD (p50) and a 65-kD (p65) subunit. Induction of NF-kappa B activity, which is a critical event in many signal transduction pathways, involves release from a cytoplasmic inhibitory protein, I kappa B, followed by translocation of the active transcription factor complex into the nucleus.(More)
Site-directed mutagenesis was used to identify functional domains present within the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) tat protein. Transient cotransfection experiments showed that derivatives of tat protein with amino acid substitutions either at the amino-terminal end or at cysteine residue 22, 37, 27, or 25 were no longer able to transactivate HIV long(More)
The malignant Reed-Sternberg cell of Hodgkin's disease, first described a century ago, has resisted in-depth analysis due to its extreme rarity in lymphomatous tissue. To directly study its genome-wide gene expression, approximately 11,000,000 bases (27,518 cDNA sequences) of expressed gene sequence was determined from living single Reed-Sternberg cells,(More)