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A single primary cilium is found in chondrocytes and other connective tissue cells. We have previously shown that extracellular matrix (ECM) macromolecules such as collagen fibers closely associate with chondrocyte primary cilia, and their points of contact are characterized by electron-opaque plaques suggesting a direct link between the ECM and the cilium.(More)
The primary cilium is a ubiquitous cytoplasmic organelle of unknown function. Ultrastructural evidence of primary cilia in chondrocytes, and their colocalisation with the Golgi apparatus, has led to speculation that these structures are functionally linked. To investigate the relationship between these organelles, we examined the molecular anatomy of the(More)
More than 300 primary cilia have been identified electronmicroscopically in a variety of embryonic and mature connective tissue cells. To further define the enigmatic function of these cilia, we examined the interrelationships between the basal apparatus and cytoplasmic organelles and the ciliary shaft and the extracellular matrix. The basal diplosome was(More)
Fluorescent viability probes have been used to visualise and investigate the viability, morphology and organisation of the keratocyte within the stroma of the intact living cornea. The live cell probe, calcien-AM, in combination with a dead cell probe, ethidium homodimer (Live/Dead Assay, Molecular Probes, U.S.A.) proved superior to earlier generation vital(More)
Hyaline cartilage chondrocytes express one primary cilium per cell, but its function remains unknown. We examined the ultrastructure of chick embryo sternal chondrocyte cilia and their interaction with extracellular matrix molecules by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and, for the first time, double-tilt electron tomography. Ciliary bending was also(More)
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disease characterized by articular cartilage degeneration. The etiology of OA is unknown. Because several previous studies have shown that primary cilia play critical roles in joint development, this study examined the incidence and morphology of primary cilia in chondrocytes during joint degeneration in a naturally(More)
We investigated the role of the chondrocyte primary cilium in mechanotransduction events related to cartilage extracellular matrix synthesis. We generated conditionally immortalized wild-type (WT) and IFT88(orpk) (ORPK) mutant chondrocytes that lack primary cilia and assessed intracellular Ca(2+) signaling, extracellular matrix synthesis, and ATP release in(More)
Lithium chloride (LiCl) exhibits significant therapeutic potential as a treatment for osteoarthritis. Hedgehog signaling is activated in osteoarthritis, where it promotes chondrocyte hypertrophy and cartilage matrix catabolism. Hedgehog signaling requires the primary cilium such that maintenance of this compartment is essential for pathway activity. Here we(More)
The pathways by which chondrocytes of articular cartilage sense their mechanical environment are unclear. Compelling structural evidence suggests that chondrocyte primary cilia are mechanosensory organelles. This study used a 3D agarose culture model to examine the effect of compressive strain on chondrocyte cilia. Chondrocyte/agarose constructs were(More)