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Various classes of nucleotidyl polymerases with different transcriptional roles contain a conserved core structure. Less is known, however, about the distinguishing features of these enzymes, particularly those of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase class. The 1. 9 A resolution crystal structure of hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B)(More)
The crystal structure of pentalenene synthase at 2.6 angstrom resolution reveals critical active site features responsible for the cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate into the tricyclic hydrocarbon pentalenene. Metal-triggered substrate ionization initiates catalysis, and the alpha-barrel active site serves as a template to channel and stabilize the(More)
The nuclear xenobiotic receptor PXR is a ligand-inducible transcription factor regulating drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters and a master switch mediating potentially adverse drug-drug interactions. In addition to binding a coactivator protein such as SRC-1, the C-terminal ligand-binding domain (LBD) is solely responsible for ligand recognition and(More)
The catalytic zinc ion of human carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) is coordinated by three histidine ligands (H94, H96, and H119) and a hydroxide ion with tetrahedral geometry. Structural and functional analysis of variants in which the zinc ligands H94 and H119 are substituted with asparagine and glutamine, and comparison with results obtained with aspartate and(More)
Terpenoid cyclases catalyze remarkably complex cyclization cascades that are initiated by the formation of a highly reactive carbocation in a polyisoprene substrate. Recent crystal structures of terpenoid cyclases show how these enzymes provide a template for binding and stabilizing the flexible substrate in the precise orientation required for catalysis,(More)
Starting with the indole-based C-3 pyridone lead HCV polymerase inhibitor 2, extensive SAR studies were performed at different positions of the indole core. The best C-5 groups were found to be compact and nonpolar moieties and that the C-6 attachments were not affecting potency. Limited N-1 benzyl-type substituent studies indicated that the best(More)
Nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) possesses an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity responsible for viral genome RNA replication. Despite several reports on the characterization of this essential viral enzyme, little is known about the reaction pathway of NS5B-catalyzed nucleotide incorporation due to the lack of a kinetic system(More)
Direct metal ligands to transition metals in metalloproteins exert a profound effect on protein-metal affinity and function. Indirect ligands, i.e., second-shell residues that hydrogen bond to direct metal ligands, typically exert more subtle effects on the chemical properties of the protein-metal complex. However, E117 of human carbonic anhydrase II(More)
SAR exploration from an initial hit, (S)-N-(2-cyclohexenylethyl)-2-fluoro-6-(2-(1-hydroxy-3-phenylpropan-2-ylamino)-2-oxoethoxy)benzamide (1), identified using our proprietary automated ligand identification system (ALIS),(1) has led to a novel series of selective hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase inhibitors with improved in vitro potency as(More)
The pregnane X-receptor (PXR) is a promiscuous nuclear receptor primarily responsible for the induction of genes from the cytochrome P450 3A family. In this study, we used a previously described PXR/SRC tethered protein to establish two in vitro assays for identifying PXR ligands: automated ligand identification system (ALIS) and temperature-dependent(More)