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Face recognition in photographic positive and negative was examined in a same/different matching task in five lighting direction conditions using untextured 3-D laser-scanned faces. The lighting directions were +60, +30, 0, -30 and -60 degrees, where negative values represent bottom lighting and positive values represent top lighting. Recognition(More)
Configural relations and a critical band of spatial frequencies (SFs) in the middle range are particularly important for face recognition. We report the results of four experiments in which the relationship between these two types of information was examined. In Experiments 1, 2A, and 2B, the face inversion effect (FIE) was used to probe configural face(More)
Previous studies have suggested that face identification is more sensitive to variations in spatial frequency content than object recognition, but none have compared how sensitive the 2 processes are to variations in spatial frequency overlap (SFO). The authors tested face and object matching accuracy under varying SFO conditions. Their results showed that(More)
Cell cultures were used to analyze the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in the development of synaptic transmission. Neurons obtained from embryonic day 18 (E18) rat hippocampus and cultured for 2 weeks exhibited extensive spontaneous synaptic activity. By comparison, neurons obtained from E16 hippocampus expressed(More)
The effects of spatial frequency overlap between pairs of low-pass versus high-pass images on face recognition and matching were examined in 6 experiments. Overlap was defined as the range of spatial frequencies shared by a pair of filtered images. This factor was manipulated by processing image pairs with high-pass/low-pass filter pairs whose 50% cutoff(More)
In two experiments, category verification of images of common objects at subordinate, basic, and superordinate levels was performed after low-pass spatial filtering, high-pass spatial filtering, 50% phase randomization, or no image manipulation. Both experiments demonstrated the same pattern of results: Low-pass filtering selectively impaired(More)
It is now well known that processing of shading information in face recognition is susceptible to bottom lighting and contrast reversal, an effect that may be due to a disruption of 3-D shape processing. The question then is whether the disruption can be rectified by other sources of 3-D information, such as shape-from-stereo. We examined this issue by(More)
We have recently demonstrated that embryonic E16 hippocampal neurons grown in cultures are unable to form fast synaptic connections unless treated with BDNF or NT-3. This experimental system offers an opportunity to define the roles of neurotrophins in processes leading to formation of functional synaptic connections. We have used ultrastructural and(More)
Neural correlates of associative memory and "forgetting" were observed 1, 6, and 14 days after acquisition of a conditioned response (CR) in the marine snail Hermissenda. Behavioral expression of a light-rotation association, as indexed by contraction of the animal's foot in response to light, dissipated throughout the 14-day interval such that a CR was(More)
Associative memory of the mollusc Hermissenda crassicornis, previously correlated with changes of specific K+ currents, protein phosphorylation, and increased synthesis of mRNA and specific proteins, is here shown to be accompanied by macroscopic alteration in the structure of a single identified neuron, the medial type B photoreceptor cell. Four to five(More)