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We estimated genetic effects on bone density in pre- and postmenopausal twins and critically considered the assumptions of the twin model. Bone mass in the radius, lumbar spine, and hip, anthropometric measurements, usual calcium and caffeine intake, tobacco and alcohol use, number of pregnancies and live births, menstrual history, usual physical activity,(More)
Multiple genetic variants of CARD15/NOD2 have been associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease and Blau syndrome. NOD2 recognizes muramyl dipeptide (MDP) derived from bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN), but the molecular basis of recognition remains elusive. We performed systematic mutational analysis to gain insights into the function of NOD2 and(More)
Leptin-receptor gene expression in hypothalamic tissue from lean and obese humans was examined. The full-length leptin receptor, that is believed to transmit the leptin signal, is expressed in human hypothalamus. There was no difference in the amount of leptin-receptor mRNA In seven lean (BMI 23.3 +/- 0.9 kg/m2) and eight obese (BMI 36.9 +/- 1.5) subjects(More)
Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone density, and osteopenia is responsible for 1.5 million fractures in the United States annually. In order to identify regions of the genome which are likely to contain genes predisposing to osteopenia, we genotyped 149 members of seven large pedigrees having recurrence of low bone mineral density (BMD) with 330 DNA(More)
We consider evidence that shared experience is associated with sibling resemblance and report new analyses of our earlier data to assess the magnitude and meaning of that association. We cite recent Swedish studies of early separated twins and present new data from reared-apart twins in Finland. Results of these analyses confirm our earlier conclusion that,(More)
Cloned probes specific for unique genes have proven to be powerful tools in defining the nature of genetic diseases such as the thalassaemias and growth hormone deficiencies. A similar approach should be useful in defining heritable diseases of type I collagen, the heterotrimer of two alpha 1(I) chains and one alpha 2(I) chain, which is the most abundant(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify environmental factors associated with bone loss in adult male twins and to determine the extent to which shared environmental characteristics affect estimates of the genetic influence on bone loss. DESIGN A 16-year cohort study. SETTING A midwestern university hospital. PARTICIPANTS One hundred and eleven male veterans of World(More)
One of the serious toxicities of cyclophosphamide chemotherapy is urotoxicity. In addition to causing leukopenia, high-dose cyclophosphamide caused both depression of hepatic microsomal enzyme activities and extensive urinary bladder damage, suggesting that a common biochemical mechanism may be responsible for both of these effects. Administration of 180 or(More)
Cloning and sequencing of epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) has demonstrated the existence of a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) flanked by unique sequences, and alternative splicing has been proposed to result in secreted and membrane-bound antigenic forms. Antisense oligonucleotides, specific for the VNTR region and various alternative splice(More)
The direct sequencing of the human type II procollagen (COL2A1) gene from polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified genomic DNA is described. Thirty-two regions of the COL2A1 gene were asymmetrically amplified with intron primers which were specifically chosen to amplify a region spanning 500 to 800 bp of sequence encoding one or more exons and their(More)