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We estimated genetic effects on bone density in pre- and postmenopausal twins and critically considered the assumptions of the twin model. Bone mass in the radius, lumbar spine, and hip, anthropometric measurements, usual calcium and caffeine intake, tobacco and alcohol use, number of pregnancies and live births, menstrual history, usual physical activity,(More)
We consider evidence that shared experience is associated with sibling resemblance and report new analyses of our earlier data to assess the magnitude and meaning of that association. We cite recent Swedish studies of early separated twins and present new data from reared-apart twins in Finland. Results of these analyses confirm our earlier conclusion that,(More)
Multiple genetic variants of CARD15/NOD2 have been associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease and Blau syndrome. NOD2 recognizes muramyl dipeptide (MDP) derived from bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN), but the molecular basis of recognition remains elusive. We performed systematic mutational analysis to gain insights into the function of NOD2 and(More)
Leptin-receptor gene expression in hypothalamic tissue from lean and obese humans was examined. The full-length leptin receptor, that is believed to transmit the leptin signal, is expressed in human hypothalamus. There was no difference in the amount of leptin-receptor mRNA In seven lean (BMI 23.3 +/- 0.9 kg/m2) and eight obese (BMI 36.9 +/- 1.5) subjects(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify environmental factors associated with bone loss in adult male twins and to determine the extent to which shared environmental characteristics affect estimates of the genetic influence on bone loss. DESIGN A 16-year cohort study. SETTING A midwestern university hospital. PARTICIPANTS One hundred and eleven male veterans of World(More)
Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone density, and osteopenia is responsible for 1.5 million fractures in the United States annually. In order to identify regions of the genome which are likely to contain genes predisposing to osteopenia, we genotyped 149 members of seven large pedigrees having recurrence of low bone mineral density (BMD) with 330 DNA(More)
One of the serious toxicities of cyclophosphamide chemotherapy is urotoxicity. In addition to causing leukopenia, high-dose cyclophosphamide caused both depression of hepatic microsomal enzyme activities and extensive urinary bladder damage, suggesting that a common biochemical mechanism may be responsible for both of these effects. Administration of 180 or(More)
Obese (ob) gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes from lean and obese humans was examined. The full coding region of the ob gene was isolated from a human adipocyte cDNA library. Translation of the insert confirmed the reported amino acid sequence. There was no difference in the sequence of an reverse transcription PCR product of the coding(More)
Chondrocalcinosis (CC) is a common cause of joint pain and arthritis that is caused by the deposition of calcium-containing crystals within articular cartilage. Although most cases are sporadic, rare familial forms have been linked to human chromosomes 8 (CCAL1) or 5p (CCAL2) (Baldwin et al. 1995; Hughes et al. 1995; Andrew et al. 1999). Here, we show that(More)