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BACKGROUND The incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) varies considerably around the world. No previous study has performed a comprehensive review examining the incidence and prevalence of MS across the Americas. The purpose of this study was to systematically review and assess the quality of studies estimating the incidence and/or prevalence(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause of neurological disability in young adults worldwide and approximately half of those affected are in Europe. The assessment of differential incidence and prevalence across populations can reveal spatial, temporal and demographic patterns which are important for identifying genetic and environmental(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether a simple pharmacist protocol, consisting of patient screening and cardiovascular risk stratification, identification and reminders about uncontrolled risk factors, and drug adherence support, can significantly reduce cardiovascular risk. DESIGN Prospective, randomized, controlled pilot study. SETTING Large primary(More)
BACKGROUND Immunomodulatory drugs (IMDs) for multiple sclerosis (MS) have been available in Canada since 1995 and are currently the most commonly prescribed treatment for MS. However, relatively little is known about the long-term persistence to these drugs. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to describe patterns of, and factors associated with,(More)
BACKGROUND Community pharmacies vary widely in terms of ownership structures, location, and dispensing policies. It is unknown if an association exists between the type of community pharmacy and the degree of medication adherence exhibited by patrons-patients. OBJECTIVE To describe adherence to statin therapy among subjects patronizing different types of(More)
Drug addiction results from a subversion of neural circuits that control motivation. Although the hedonic and addictive properties of psychostimulants and drugs of abuse are predominantly attributed to dopamine and glutamate, it is appreciated that other signaling molecules in the brain are important. This study suggests that cocaine- and(More)
CONTEXT Interferon beta is widely prescribed to treat multiple sclerosis (MS); however, its relationship with disability progression has yet to be established. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between interferon beta exposure and disability progression in patients with relapsing-remitting MS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS Retrospective cohort(More)
BACKGROUND While mental comorbidity is considered common in multiple sclerosis (MS), its impact is poorly defined; methods are needed to support studies of mental comorbidity. We validated and applied administrative case definitions for any mental comorbidities in MS. METHODS Using administrative health data we identified persons with MS and a matched(More)