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BACKGROUND Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause of neurological disability in young adults worldwide and approximately half of those affected are in Europe. The assessment of differential incidence and prevalence across populations can reveal spatial, temporal and demographic patterns which are important for identifying genetic and environmental(More)
BACKGROUND The incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) varies considerably around the world. No previous study has performed a comprehensive review examining the incidence and prevalence of MS across the Americas. The purpose of this study was to systematically review and assess the quality of studies estimating the incidence and/or prevalence(More)
Drug addiction results from a subversion of neural circuits that control motivation. Although the hedonic and addictive properties of psychostimulants and drugs of abuse are predominantly attributed to dopamine and glutamate, it is appreciated that other signaling molecules in the brain are important. This study suggests that cocaine- and(More)
BACKGROUND While mental comorbidity is considered common in multiple sclerosis (MS), its impact is poorly defined; methods are needed to support studies of mental comorbidity. We validated and applied administrative case definitions for any mental comorbidities in MS. METHODS Using administrative health data we identified persons with MS and a matched(More)
OBJECTIVE The risk of cancer after exposure to the β-interferons (IFNβs) for multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been established. We assessed whether IFNβ treatment for MS is associated with cancer risk or the risk of specific cancers in a population-based observational study. METHODS The British Columbia MS database was linked to the provincial Cancer(More)
Commentaries Controversies in the Management of Cysticercosis Cysticercosis, an infection caused by larvae of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium in human tissues , is a common cause of neurologic disease in most non-Muslim developing countries, where it accounts for more than one-third of adult-onset epilepsy cases (1). Cysticercosis is increasingly diagnosed(More)
UNLABELLED The purpose of these investigations was to determine if differences exist in skeletal muscle nutritive blood flow and lactate metabolism in women with fibromyalgia (FM) compared to healthy women (HC); furthermore, to determine if differences in nitric oxide-mediated systems account for any detected alterations in blood flow and lactate metabolism(More)
BACKGROUND We examined (1) patient characteristics and disease-modifying drug (DMD) exposure in late-onset (LOMS, ≥50 years at symptom onset) versus adult-onset (AOMS, 18-<50 years) MS and (2) the association between interferon-beta (IFNβ) and disability progression in older relapsing-onset MS adults (≥50 years). METHODS This retrospective study(More)
We report an outbreak comprising 50 confirmed cases of Legionnaires' disease in Edinburgh, Scotland, June 2012. In addition, there were 49 suspected cases. Epidemiological evidence suggests that a common outdoor airborne exposure occurred over south-west Edinburgh. This probably emanated from cooling towers in the north-east of the affected area, although(More)