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BACKGROUND The incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) varies considerably around the world. No previous study has performed a comprehensive review examining the incidence and prevalence of MS across the Americas. The purpose of this study was to systematically review and assess the quality of studies estimating the incidence and/or prevalence(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause of neurological disability in young adults worldwide and approximately half of those affected are in Europe. The assessment of differential incidence and prevalence across populations can reveal spatial, temporal and demographic patterns which are important for identifying genetic and environmental(More)
Drug addiction results from a subversion of neural circuits that control motivation. Although the hedonic and addictive properties of psychostimulants and drugs of abuse are predominantly attributed to dopamine and glutamate, it is appreciated that other signaling molecules in the brain are important. This study suggests that cocaine- and(More)
BACKGROUND While mental comorbidity is considered common in multiple sclerosis (MS), its impact is poorly defined; methods are needed to support studies of mental comorbidity. We validated and applied administrative case definitions for any mental comorbidities in MS. METHODS Using administrative health data we identified persons with MS and a matched(More)
OBJECTIVE The risk of cancer after exposure to the β-interferons (IFNβs) for multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been established. We assessed whether IFNβ treatment for MS is associated with cancer risk or the risk of specific cancers in a population-based observational study. METHODS The British Columbia MS database was linked to the provincial Cancer(More)
BACKGROUND We examined (1) patient characteristics and disease-modifying drug (DMD) exposure in late-onset (LOMS, ≥50 years at symptom onset) versus adult-onset (AOMS, 18-<50 years) MS and (2) the association between interferon-beta (IFNβ) and disability progression in older relapsing-onset MS adults (≥50 years). METHODS This retrospective study(More)
BACKGROUND Traditional randomized controlled trials are considered the gold standard for evaluating the efficacy of a treatment. However, in adherence research, limitations to this study design exist, especially when evaluating real-world applicability of an intervention. Although adherence interventions by community pharmacists have been tested, problems(More)
''The eye of the master will do more work than his hands'' Benjamin Franklin 1 Surgical tasks are performed in a dynamic, ever changing , anxiety-provoking environment that continuously tests the limits of human performance. The ability to maintain control and focus on attention is universally accepted as a key to success. In the operating room, there are(More)
BACKGROUND High adherence to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) reported in observational studies has frequently been attributed to improved tolerability. However, these agents are also relatively new to the market compared to other antihypertensive medications. We aimed to determine if an association(More)