Learn More
The Gag proteins of a number of different retroviruses contain late or L domains that promote the release of virions from the plasma membrane. Three types of L domains have been identified to date: Pro-Thr-Ala-Pro (PTAP), Pro-Pro-X-Tyr, and Tyr-Pro-Asp-Leu. It has previously been demonstrated that overexpression of the N-terminal, E2-like domain of the(More)
The proline-rich L domains of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and other retroviruses interact with late endocytic proteins during virion assembly and budding. In contrast, the YPDL L domain of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is apparently unique in its reported ability to interact both with the mu2 subunit of the AP-2 adaptor protein complex(More)
Both DNA and RNA can serve as powerful building blocks for bottom-up fabrication of nanostructures. A pioneering concept proposed by Ned Seeman 30 years ago has led to an explosion of knowledge in DNA nanotechnology. RNA can be manipulated with simplicity characteristic of DNA, while possessing noncanonical base-pairing, versatile function, and catalytic(More)
We have previously demonstrated by Gag polyprotein budding assays that the Gag p9 protein of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) utilizes a unique YPDL motif as a late assembly domain (L domain) to facilitate release of the budding virus particle from the host cell plasma membrane (B. A. Puffer, L. J. Parent, J. W. Wills, and R. C. Montelaro, J. Virol.(More)
Retroviral Gag polyproteins are necessary and sufficient for virus budding. Numerous studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag assembly and budding mechanisms have been reported, but relatively little is known about these fundamental pathways among animal lentiviruses. While there may be a general assumption that lentiviruses share common(More)
Synthesis of Gag-Pol polyproteins of retroviruses requires ribosomes to shift translational reading frame once or twice in a -1 direction to read through the stop codon in the gag reading frame. It is generally believed that a slippery sequence and a downstream RNA structure are required for the programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting. However, the mechanism(More)
Retrovirus assembly and budding involve a highly dynamic and concerted interaction of viral and cellular proteins. Previous studies have shown that retroviral Gag proteins interact with actin filaments, but the significance of these interactions remains to be defined. Using equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), we now demonstrate differential effects of(More)
A role for the actin cytoskeleton in retrovirus assembly has long been speculated. However, specific mechanisms by which actin facilitates the assembly process remain elusive. We previously demonstrated differential effects of experimentally modified actin dynamics on virion production of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a lentivirus related to HIV-1,(More)
We present some inequalities for the polygamma funtions. As an application, we give the upper and lower bounds for the expression n k=1 1 k − ln n − γ, where γ = 0.57721 · · · is the Euler's constant. The gamma function is usually defined for Rez > 0 by Γ(z) = ∞ 0 t z−1 e −t dt. The psi or digamma function, the logarithmic derivative of the gamma function(More)
Mature, fully active human immunodeficiency virus protease (PR) is liberated from the Gag-Pol precursor via regulated autoprocessing. A chimeric protease precursor, glutathione S-transferase-transframe region (TFR)-PR-FLAG, also undergoes N-terminal autocatalytic maturation when it is expressed in Escherichia coli. Mutation of the surface residue H69 to(More)