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We describe the Phase II HapMap, which characterizes over 3.1 million human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 270 individuals from four geographically diverse populations and includes 25-35% of common SNP variation in the populations surveyed. The map is estimated to capture untyped common variation with an average maximum r2 of between(More)
With the advent of dense maps of human genetic variation, it is now possible to detect positive natural selection across the human genome. Here we report an analysis of over 3 million polymorphisms from the International HapMap Project Phase 2 (HapMap2). We used 'long-range haplotype' methods, which were developed to identify alleles segregating in a(More)
By impairing both function and survival, the severe reduction in oxygen availability associated with high-altitude environments is likely to act as an agent of natural selection. We used genomic and candidate gene approaches to search for evidence of such genetic selection. First, a genome-wide allelic differentiation scan (GWADS) comparing indigenous(More)
We present the analysis of the evolution of tumors in a case of hepatocellular carcinoma. This case is particularly informative about cancer growth dynamics and the underlying driving mutations. We sampled nine different sections from three tumors and seven more sections from the adjacent nontumor tissues. Selected sections were subjected to exon as well as(More)
Chromosomal inversion is an important type of genomic variations involved in both evolution and disease pathogenesis. Here, we describe the refined genetic structure of a 3.8-Mb inversion polymorphism at chromosome 8p23. Using HapMap data of 1,073 SNPs generated from 209 unrelated samples from CEPH-Utah residents with ancestry from northern and western(More)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease with complex genetic inheritance. Genome-wide association studies have identified SLE susceptibility variations at the IRF7/KIAA1542 locus and with STAT4 gene in European populations. We decided to investigate the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IRF7/KIAA1542(More)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease with complex genetic inheritance. Genetic association of signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) with SLE susceptibility has been convincingly established in multiple populations including Asians, whereas studies of genetic relations between STAT4 polymorphisms and(More)
PURPOSE BH3-like motif containing, cell death inducer (BLID) and LOC399959 are two genes associated with the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs577948, which is a susceptibility locus for high myopia in Japanese subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine if BLID and LOC399959 are associated with high myopia in Chinese Han subjects. METHODS(More)
A three-generation Han Chinese family was found with complex digital anomalies including various types of polydactyly and syndactyly of fingers and toes. Some extra digits are composed only of soft tissues while others are complete fingers or toes, making this complex case different from previously reported pedigrees. The digital disease shows an autosomal(More)
Inheritable colorectal cancers (CRC) accounted for about 20% of the CRC cases, such as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), Gardner syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). A four-generation Han Chinese family was found affected with polyposis in colons. Inferred from the pedigree structure, the disease in this family showed an(More)