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Patients with the immunodeficiency Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) frequently develop systemic autoimmunity. Here, we demonstrate that mutation of the WAS gene results in B cells that are hyperresponsive to B cell receptor and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signals in vitro, thereby promoting a B cell-intrinsic break in tolerance. Whereas this defect leads to(More)
B cells encounter both soluble Ag (sAg) and membrane-associated Ag (mAg) in the secondary lymphoid tissue, yet how the physical form of Ag modulates B cell activation remains unclear. This study compares actin reorganization and its role in BCR signalosome formation in mAg- and sAg-stimulated B cells. Both mAg and sAg induce F-actin accumulation and actin(More)
Overnutrition activates a proinflammatory program in macrophages to induce insulin resistance (IR), but its molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here, we show that saturated fatty acid and lipopolysaccharide, two factors implicated in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced IR, suppress macrophage CGI-58 expression. Macrophage-specific CGI-58 knockout(More)
Negative regulation of receptor signaling is essential for controlling cell activation and differentiation. In B-lymphocytes, the down-regulation of B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling is critical for suppressing the activation of self-reactive B cells; however, the mechanism underlying the negative regulation of signaling remains elusive. Using(More)
CD23 has been implicated as a negative regulator of IgE and IgG antibody responses. However, whether CD23 has any role in B-cell activation remains unclear. We examined the expression of CD23 in different subsets of peripheral B cells and the impact of CD23 expression on the early events of B-cell receptor (BCR) activation using CD23 knockout (KO) mice. We(More)
The B cell antigen receptor (BCR) is the sensor on the B cell surface that surveys foreign molecules (antigen) in our bodies and activates B cells to generate antibody responses upon encountering cognate antigen. The binding of antigen to the BCR induces signaling cascades in the cytoplasm, which provides the first signal for B cell activation.(More)
Intestinal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a hormone that stimulates insulin secretion and acts as a neuropeptide to control glucose homeostasis, but little is known whether intestinal GLP-1 has any effect in the control of hepatic glucose production (HGP). Here we found that intraduodenal infusion of GLP-1 activated duodenal PKC-δ, lowered HGP and was(More)
The cytoplasmic portion of the NS2 protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) fused with a thioredoxin (TrX)-His tag was expressed in BL21 (DE3) cells and purified using an Ni-NTA His resin. Using a pull-down assay, a specific protein from the cell lysate of HepG2 cell lines was isolated together with immobilized truncated NS2 protein using Ni-NTA resin. Through(More)
The function of the hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) has been investigated in hepatoma cell lines before; however, its function in the canonical HEK 293 cell line has not been addressed. In this study, we found that HBx increased cellular interaction by fusing the gap between HEK 293 cells, which is different from what has been reported previously. We also(More)
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