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Central Asia has a land area of 5.6 × 10(6) km(2) and contains 80-90% of the world's temperate deserts. Yet it is one of the least characterized areas in the estimation of the global carbon (C) stock/balance. This study assessed the sizes and spatiotemporal patterns of C pools in Central Asia using both inventory (based on 353 biomass and 284 soil samples)(More)
Previously, we have reported that either CIM or PZQ, 2 clinical drugs, could be used to develop as adjuvants on HBV DNA vaccine to elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses. Here, we demonstrate that combinations of CIM and PZQ as adjuvants for a HBV DNA vaccine, could induce much stronger antigen specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses compared(More)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection can cause severe disease in the lower respiratory tract of infants and older people. Vaccination with a formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine (FI-RSV) and subsequent RSV infection has led to mild to severe pneumonia with two deaths among vaccinees. The vaccine-enhanced disease (VED) was recently demonstrated to be due(More)
The induction of relatively weak immunity by DNA vaccines in humans can be largely attributed to the low efficiency of transduction of somatic cells. Although formulation with liposomes has been shown to enhance DNA transduction of cultured cells, little, if any, effect is observed on the transduction of somatic tissues and cells. To improve the rate of(More)
Vaccination against amyloid-β protein (Aβ42) induces high levels of antibody, making it a promising strategy for treating Alzheimer’s disease (AD). One drawback in the past was that clinical trial approval was withheld because of speculation that the Aβ42 vaccine induces CD4+ T cell infiltrations into the central nervous system. To reduce T-cell activation(More)
BACKGROUND Equitable utilization of health care is a primary goal of the Chinese health system. This study aimed to examine horizontal inequity in health care utilization and identify the factors resulting in inequity among the middle-aged and elderly in China. METHODS The data were obtained from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study(More)
An HBsAg-HBIG therapeutic vaccine (Yeast-derived Immune Complexes, YIC) for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients has undergone a series of clinical trials. The HBeAg sero-conversion rate of YIC varied from 21.9% to 14% depending on the immunization protocols from 6 to 12 injections. To analyze the immunological mechanisms exerted by 6 injections of YIC, 44(More)
Tolerance controls the magnitude of inflammation, and balance between beneficial and harmful effects of inflammation is crucial for organ function and survival. Inadequate tolerance leads to various inflammatory diseases. Antigen specific tolerance is ideal for inflammation control as alternative anti-inflammatory interventions are non-specific and(More)
IoT Service clustering is the basis for service discovery, service composition and service recommendation in Internet of Things. However, most existing IoT service clustering approaches solely focus on utilizing service description text. This paper proposes a Tag Aided Service Clustering approach (TASC) which integrates both service description text and(More)
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