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In this paper, we perform an empirical analysis of the cyber criminal ecosystem on Twitter. Essentially, through analyzing inner social relationships in the criminal account community, we find that criminal accounts tend to be socially connected, forming a small-world network. We also find that criminal hubs, sitting in the center of the social graph, are(More)
We systematically study the design of image recognition CAPTCHAs (IRCs) in this paper. We first review and examine all existing IRCs schemes and evaluate each scheme against the practical requirements in CAPTCHA applications, particularly in large-scale real-life applications such as Gmail and Hotmail. Then we present a security analysis of the(More)
To date, as one of the most popular Online Social Networks (OSNs), Twit-ter is paying its dues as more and more spammers set their sights on this microblogging site. The Twitter spammers can achieve their malicious goals such as sending spam, spreading malware, hosting botnet command and control (C&C) channels, and launching other underground illicit(More)
We will discuss the recurrence on the state space of the adaptive MCMC algorithm using some examples. We present the ergodicity properties of adaptive MCMC algorithms under the minimal recurrent assumptions, and show the Weak Law of Large Numbers under the same conditions. We will analyze the relationship between the recurrence on the product space of state(More)
BACKGROUND In mass spectrometry (MS) based proteomic data analysis, peak detection is an essential step for subsequent analysis. Recently, there has been significant progress in the development of various peak detection algorithms. However, neither a comprehensive survey nor an experimental comparison of these algorithms is yet available. The main objective(More)
To date, as one of the most popular online social networks (OSNs), Twitter is paying its dues as more and more spammers set their sights on this microblogging site. Twitter spammers can achieve their malicious goals such as sending spam, spreading malware, hosting botnet command and control (C&C) channels, and launching other underground illicit(More)
In this paper, we consider the problem of “evil twin” attacks in wireless local area networks (WLANs). An evil twin is essentially a rogue (phishing) Wi-Fi access point (AP) that looks like a legitimate one (with the same SSID). It is set up by an adversary, who can eavesdrop on wireless communications of users' Internet access. Existing evil(More)
Strigolactones (SLs), a newly discovered class of carotenoid-derived phytohormones, are essential for developmental processes that shape plant architecture and interactions with parasitic weeds and symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Despite the rapid progress in elucidating the SL biosynthetic pathway, the perception and signalling mechanisms of SL(More)
Methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH) has been displayed on the surface of microorganisms for the first time using only N- and C-terminal domains of the ice nucleation protein (INPNC) from Pseudomonas syringae INA5 as an anchoring motif. A shuttle vector pINCM coding for INPNC-MPH was constructed and used to target MPH onto the surface of a natural p-nitrophenol(More)