Chao Yang Fan

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Food-borne hemorrhagic Escherichia coli, exemplified by the strains O157:H7 and O104:H4 (refs 1, 2), require elaborate acid-resistance systems (ARs) to survive the extremely acidic environment such as the stomach (pH ≈ 2). AR2 expels intracellular protons through the decarboxylation of L-glutamate (Glu) in the cytoplasm and exchange of the reaction product(More)
SWEETs and their prokaryotic homologues are monosaccharide and disaccharide transporters that are present from Archaea to plants and humans. SWEETs play crucial roles in cellular sugar efflux processes: that is, in phloem loading, pollen nutrition and nectar secretion. Their bacterial homologues, which are called SemiSWEETs, are among the smallest known(More)
The aim of the present study was to develop an oil-free o/w microemulsion, Cremophor EL:ethanol-propylene glycol:saline, for diallyl trisulfide (DATS) for intravenous (i.v.) administration to modify the safety and pharmacokinetics of DATS. The ternary diagram was constructed to identify the regions of dilutable microemulsions, and the optimal composition of(More)
TNFAIP8-like 2 (TIPE2) has an essential role in immune homeostasis, yet the underlying mechanism remains enigmatic. The high-resolution crystal structure of TIPE2 reveals a previously uncharacterized fold that is different from the predicted fold of a death effector domain (DED). Strikingly, TIPE2 contains a large, hydrophobic central cavity that is poised(More)
Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is a tentative member of the Aquareovirus genus in the family Reoviridae. The mature virion comprises 11 dsRNA genomes enclosed by two concentric icosahedral proteins shells that is comprised of five core proteins and two outer capsid proteins. The genome sequence and 3D structure demonstrate there is a higher level of sequence(More)
Nonstructural proteins of members of the family Reoviridae are believed to play significant roles in the virus replication cycle. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the nonstructural protein NS80 of grass carp reovirus, encoded by a gene of Segment 4 (S4), is a primary determinant that is related to the formation of viroplasmic inclusion bodies (VIB),(More)
Viral nonstructural proteins in both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses play important roles in viral replication. Protein NS38 of Grass carp reovirus (GCRV), has been deduced to be a non-structural protein, and, consistent with other reoviruses, is considered to cooperate with the NS80 protein in viral particle assembly. To investigate the molecular basis(More)
Grass carp reovirus (GCRV), a double stranded RNA virus that infects aquatic animals, often with disastrous effects, belongs to the genus Aquareovirus and family Reoviridea. Similar to other reoviruses, genome replication of GCRV in infected cells occurs in cytoplasmic inclusion bodies, also called viral factories. Sequences analysis revealed the(More)
Red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) is an important pathogen that causes diseases in many species of fish in marine aquaculture. The larvae and juveniles are more easily infected by RGNNV and the cumulative mortality is as high as 100 % after being infected with RGNNV. This virus imposes a serious threat to aquaculture of grouper fry. This(More)