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The glucose transporter GLUT1 catalyses facilitative diffusion of glucose into erythrocytes and is responsible for glucose supply to the brain and other organs. Dysfunctional mutations may lead to GLUT1 deficiency syndrome, whereas overexpression of GLUT1 is a prognostic indicator for cancer. Despite decades of investigation, the structure of GLUT1 remains(More)
The WD40 domain exhibits a β-propeller architecture, often comprising seven blades. The WD40 domain is one of the most abundant domains and also among the top interacting domains in eukaryotic genomes. In this review, we will discuss the identification, definition and architecture of the WD40 domains. WD40 domain proteins are involved in a large variety of(More)
Tudor domains are protein modules that mediate protein-protein interactions, potentially by binding to methylated ligands. A group of germline specific single and multiTudor domain containing proteins (TDRDs) represented by drosophila Tudor and its mammalian orthologs Tdrd1, Tdrd4/RNF17, and Tdrd6 play evolutionarily conserved roles in germinal(More)
The polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is the major methyltransferase for H3K27 methylation, a modification critical for maintaining repressed gene expression programs throughout development. It has been previously shown that PRC2 maintains histone methylation patterns during DNA replication in part through its ability to bind to H3K27me3. However, the(More)
Ten-Eleven Translocation (Tet) family of dioxygenases dynamically regulates DNA methylation and has been implicated in cell lineage differentiation and oncogenesis. Yet their functions and mechanisms of action in gene regulation and embryonic development are largely unknown. Here, we report that Xenopus Tet3 plays an essential role in early eye and neural(More)
CFP1 is a CXXC domain-containing protein and an essential component of the SETD1 histone H3K4 methyltransferase complex. CXXC domain proteins direct different chromatin-modifying activities to various chromatin regions. Here, we report crystal structures of the CFP1 CXXC domain in complex with six different CpG DNA sequences. The crescent-shaped CFP1 CXXC(More)
Arginine methylation modulates diverse cellular processes and represents a molecular signature of germ-line-specific Piwi family proteins. A subset of Tudor domains recognize arginine methylation modifications, but the binding mechanism has been lacking. Here we establish that, like other germ-line Tudor proteins, the ancestral staphylococcal nuclease(More)
The SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase) complex is an important chromatin modifying complex that can both acetylate and deubiquitinate histones. Sgf29 is a novel component of the SAGA complex. Here, we report the crystal structures of the tandem Tudor domains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human Sgf29 and their complexes with H3K4me2 and H3K4me3(More)
Smooth muscle cell (SMC) plays critical roles in many human diseases, an in vitro system that recapitulates human SMC differentiation would be invaluable for exploring molecular mechanisms leading to the human diseases. We report a directed and highly efficient SMC differentiation system by treating the monolayer-cultivated human embryonic stem cells(More)