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Ral GTPases have been implicated in the regulation of a variety of dynamic cellular processes including proliferation, oncogenic transformation, actin-cytoskeletal dynamics, endocytosis, and exocytosis. Recently the Sec6/8 complex, or exocyst, a multisubunit complex facilitating post-Golgi targeting of distinct subclasses of secretory vesicles, has been(More)
VAP proteins (human VAPB/ALS8, Drosophila VAP33, and C. elegans VPR-1) are homologous proteins with an amino-terminal major sperm protein (MSP) domain and a transmembrane domain. The MSP domain is named for its similarity to the C. elegans MSP protein, a sperm-derived hormone that binds to the Eph receptor and induces oocyte maturation. A point mutation(More)
Tumors express peptide antigens capable of being recognized by tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Immunization of mice with a carcinogen-induced colorectal tumor, CT26, engineered to secrete granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, routinely generated both short-term and long-term CTL lines that not only lysed the parental tumor in(More)
Discoveries in fruit flies have greatly contributed to our understanding of neuroscience. The use of an unparalleled wealth of tools, many of which originated between 1910–1960, has enabled milestone discoveries in nervous system development and function. Such findings have triggered and guided many research efforts in vertebrate neuroscience. After 100(More)
In this study we used U0126, a potent and specific inhibitor of MEK, to study the roles of MEK/ERK/p90rsk signaling pathway in the meiotic cell cycle of mouse oocytes. The phosphorylation of MAP kinase and p90rsk in the oocytes treated with 1.5 microM U0126 was the same as that in oocytes cultured in drug-free medium. With 1.5 microM U0126 treatment, the(More)
The duration of a woman's reproductive period is determined by the size and persistence of a dormant oocyte pool. Specific oocyte genes are essential for follicle maintenance and female fertility. The mechanisms that regulate the expression of these genes are poorly understood. We found that a cullin-ring finger ligase-4 (CRL4) complex was crucial in this(More)
Polo-like kinases (Plks) are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that have been activated through phosphorylation. The activity of these kinases has been shown to be required for regulating multiple stages of mitotic progression in somatic cells. In this experiment, the changes in Plk1 expression were detected in mouse oocytes through Western(More)
Neurons establish specific synaptic connections with their targets, a process that is highly regulated. Numerous cell adhesion molecules have been implicated in target recognition, but how these proteins are precisely trafficked and targeted is poorly understood. To identify components that affect synaptic specificity, we carried out a forward genetic(More)
Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that play important regulatory roles during mitotic cell cycle progression. In this study, Plk1 expression, subcellular localization, and possible functions during rat oocyte meiotic maturation, fertilization, and embryonic cleavages were studied by using RT-PCR, Western blot,(More)
Autophagy helps deliver sequestered intracellular cargo to lysosomes for proteolytic degradation and thereby maintains cellular homeostasis by preventing accumulation of toxic substances in cells. In a forward mosaic screen in Drosophila designed to identify genes required for neuronal function and maintenance, we identified multiple cacophony (cac) mutant(More)