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The three-dimensional structure of rice nonspecific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP2) has been solved for the first time. The structure of nsLTP2 was obtained using 813 distance constraints, 30 hydrogen bond constraints, and 19 dihedral angle constraints. Fifteen of the 50 random simulated annealing structures satisfied all of the constraints and possessed(More)
Plant n on-s pecific l ipid t ransfer p roteins (nsLTPs) are small and basic proteins. Recently, nsLTPs have been reported involved in many physiological functions such as mediating phospholipid transfer, participating in plant defence activity against bacterial and fungal pathogens, and enhancing cell wall extension in tobacco. However, the lipid transfer(More)
Vigna radiata plant defensin 1 (VrD1) is the first reported plant defensin exhibiting insecticidal activity. We report herein the nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of VrD1 and the implication on its insecticidal activity. The root-mean-square deviation values are 0.51 +/- 0.35 and 1.23 +/- 0.29 A for backbone and all heavy atoms, respectively.(More)
Coiled-coil proteins contain a characteristic seven-residue sequence repeat whose positions are designated a to g. The interacting surface between alpha-helices in a classical coiled coil is formed by interspersing nonpolar side chains at the a and d positions with hydrophilic residues at the flanking e and g positions. To explore how the chemical nature of(More)
Plant nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are small basic proteins that transport phospholipids between membranes. On the basis of molecular mass, nsLTPs are subdivided into nsLTP1 and nsLTP2. NsLTPs are all helical proteins stabilized by four conserved disulfide bonds. The existence of an internal hydrophobic cavity, running through the molecule,(More)
Interleukin-1β is a cytokine critically involved in immune and inflammatory responses. To extend its use as a component of avian vaccines, a circularly permuted chicken interleukin-1β was synthesized that maintains its activity after pre-incubation at high temperatures, unlike wild-type chicken interleukin-1β, which is irreversibly inactivated at high(More)
A series of small molecules bearing an alpha-ketoamide warhead were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit cathepsin S, a key proteolytic enzyme upregulated in many cancers during tumor progression and metastasis. Most of the synthetic compounds were noncytotoxic, but several robustly inhibited cathepsin S (IC(50) < 10 nM) and potently(More)
Berberine is a natural product isolated from herbal plants such as Rhizoma coptidis which has been shown to have anti-neoplastic properties. However, the effects of berberine on the behavior of breast cancers are largely unknown. To determine if berberine might be useful in the treatment of breast cancer and its cytotoxic mechanism, we analyzed the impact(More)
BACKGROUND Avian reovirus (ARV) is a member of the Orthoreovirus genus in the Reoviridae family. It is the etiological agent of several diseases, among which viral arthritis and malabsorption syndrome are the most commercially important, causing considerable economic losses in the poultry industry. Although a small but increasing number of reports have(More)
Certain antitumor agents have recently been extracted from the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The diterpene derivative, tanshinone IIA, possesses cytotoxic activity against several human carcinoma cell lines. It also inhibits invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. In the present study, we isolated tanshinone IIA from S. miltiorrhiza, and it exhibited(More)