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[1] Desert dust simulations generated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Community Climate System Model for the current climate are shown to be consistent with present day satellite and deposition data. The response of the dust cycle to last glacial maximum, preindustrial, modern, and doubled-carbon dioxide climates is analyzed. Only natural(More)
Atmospheric inputs of iron to the open ocean are hypothesized to modulate ocean biogeochemistry. This review presents an integration of available observations of atmospheric iron and iron deposition, and also covers bioavailable iron distributions. Methods for estimating temporal variability in ocean deposition over the recent past are reviewed. Desert dust(More)
[1] Atmospheric mineral aerosols influence climate and biogeochemistry, and thus understanding the impact of humans on mineral aerosols is important. Our longest continuous record of in situ atmospheric desert dust measurements comes from Barbados, which shows fluctuations of a factor of 4 in surface mass concentrations between the 1960s and the 1980s(More)
[1] We perform a sensitivity study with the Biogeochemical Elemental Cycling (BEC) ocean model to understand the impact of atmospheric inorganic nitrogen deposition on marine biogeochemistry and air-sea CO 2 exchange. Simulations involved examining the response to three different atmospheric inorganic nitrogen deposition scenarios namely, Pre-industrial (22(More)
[1] We present results from transient sensitivity studies with the Biogeochemical Elemental Cycling (BEC) ocean model to increasing anthropogenic atmospheric inorganic nitrogen (N) and soluble iron (Fe) deposition over the industrial era. Elevated N deposition results from fossil fuel combustion and agriculture, and elevated soluble Fe deposition results(More)
[1] Atmospheric desert dust is potentially highly sensitive to changes in climate, carbon dioxide and human land use. In this study we use 6 different scenarios of the processes responsible for changes in source areas and explore changes in desert dust loading in pre-industrial and future climates, although all the scenario results are likely to be(More)
[1] The primary nutrients that limit marine phytoplankton growth rates include nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), iron (Fe), and silicon (Si). Atmospheric transport and deposition provides a source for each of these nutrients to the oceans. We utilize an ocean biogeochemical model to examine the relative importance of these atmospheric inputs for ocean(More)
We use an inorganic aerosol thermodynamic equilibrium model in a three­ dimensional chemical transport model to understand the roles of ammonia chemistry and natural aerosols on the global distribution of aerosols. The thermodynamic equilibrium model partitions gas­phase precursors among modeled aerosol species self­consistently with ambient relative(More)
Lithium-ion batteries raise safety, environmental, and cost concerns, which mostly arise from their nonaqueous electrolytes. The use of aqueous alternatives is limited by their narrow electrochemical stability window (1.23 volts), which sets an intrinsic limit on the practical voltage and energy output. We report a highly concentrated aqueous electrolyte(More)
Halimodendron halodendron has been used as forage in northwestern China for a long time. Its young leaves and flowers are edible and favored by indigenous people. In this study, eleven phenolic compounds were bioassay-guided and isolated from the aerial parts of H. halodendron for the first time. They were identified by means of physicochemical and(More)