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[1] Desert dust simulations generated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Community Climate System Model for the current climate are shown to be consistent with present day satellite and deposition data. The response of the dust cycle to last glacial maximum, preindustrial, modern, and doubled-carbon dioxide climates is analyzed. Only natural(More)
Atmospheric inputs of iron to the open ocean are hypothesized to modulate ocean biogeochemistry. This review presents an integration of available observations of atmospheric iron and iron deposition, and also covers bioavailable iron distributions. Methods for estimating temporal variability in ocean deposition over the recent past are reviewed. Desert dust(More)
[1] Atmospheric mineral aerosols influence climate and biogeochemistry, and thus understanding the impact of humans on mineral aerosols is important. Our longest continuous record of in situ atmospheric desert dust measurements comes from Barbados, which shows fluctuations of a factor of 4 in surface mass concentrations between the 1960s and the 1980s(More)
GABA receptors play an important role in ischemic brain injury. Studies have indicated that autophagy is closely related to neurodegenerative diseases. However, during chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, the changes of autophagy in the hippocampal CA1 area, the correlation between GABA receptors and autophagy, and their influences on hippocampal neuronal(More)
[1] We perform a sensitivity study with the Biogeochemical Elemental Cycling (BEC) ocean model to understand the impact of atmospheric inorganic nitrogen deposition on marine biogeochemistry and air-sea CO 2 exchange. Simulations involved examining the response to three different atmospheric inorganic nitrogen deposition scenarios namely, Pre-industrial (22(More)
[1] We present results from transient sensitivity studies with the Biogeochemical Elemental Cycling (BEC) ocean model to increasing anthropogenic atmospheric inorganic nitrogen (N) and soluble iron (Fe) deposition over the industrial era. Elevated N deposition results from fossil fuel combustion and agriculture, and elevated soluble Fe deposition results(More)
Gambogic acid (GA), the main active component of gamboge resin, has potent antitumor activity both in vivo and in vitro. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we found that GA could initiate autophagy in colorectal cancer cells, and inhibition of the autophagy process accelerated the effect of proliferative inhibition(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic in China; perinatal transmission is the main source of chronic HBV infection. Simultaneous administration of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and hepatitis B vaccine is highly effective to prevent perinatal transmission of HBV; however, the effectiveness also depends on full adherence to the(More)
The localization of GABA and parvalbumin was studied in the developing cerebellum of human fetuses from 16 to 28 weeks of gestation. The avidin-biotin complex immunohistochemical method combined with silver staining were used to reveal the presence of GABA- and parvalbumin-positive neurons and nerve fibres. As early as the 16th week of gestation, GABA(More)
PHACE and PHACES are acronyms for a syndrome of variable expression comprising posterior cranial fossa malformations, facial haemangiomas, arterial anomalies, aortic coarctation and other cardiac disorders, ocular abnormalities and stenotic arterial disease. We review five girls and three boys aged 1 month-14 years with disorders from this spectrum. Six had(More)