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High atomic number material, such as gold, may be used in conjunction with radiation to provide dose enhancement in tumors. In the current study, we investigated the dose-enhancing effect and apoptotic potential of gold nanoparticles in combination with single-dose clinical electron beams on B16F10 melanoma tumor-bearing mice. We revealed that the(More)
Methotrexate (MTX), a stoichiometric inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, is a chemotherapeutic agent for treating a variety of neoplasms. Impairment of drug import into cells and increase in drug export from cells may render cells resistant to MTX. MTX, when locally administered in a soluble form, is rapidly absorbed through capillaries into the(More)
Systemic administration of Salmonella to tumor-bearing mice leads to preferential accumulation within tumor sites and retardation of tumor growth. However, the detailed mechanism of Salmonella-induced antitumor immune response via host T cell remains uncertain. Herein, we used wild-type, CD4+ T-cell-deficient, and CD8+ T-cell-deficient mice to study the(More)
Chronic exercise has been reported to improve cognitive function. However, whether and how different types of exercise affect various learning and memory tasks remain uncertain. To address this issue, male BALB/c mice were trained for 4 weeks under two different exercise protocols: moderate treadmill running or voluntary wheel running. After exercise(More)
Cathepsins have long been considered as housekeeping molecules. However, specific functions have also been attributed to each of these lysosomal proteases. Squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) 1, widely expressed in various uterine cervical cells, is an endogenous cathepsin (cat) L inhibitor. In this study, we investigated whether the cat L-SCCA 1(More)
OBJECTIVES To establish the normal range of urine prothymosin-alpha in humans and to investigate its role as a specific tumor marker for the detection and follow-up of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder before and after curative treatment. METHODS Urine samples were obtained from 151 healthy volunteers, 60 patients with urinary tract(More)
BACKGROUND Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a genetic disorder characterized by development of renal cysts and progressive renal dysfunction. Renal tissues from both PKD patients and rodent models of PKD show elevated c-myc expression. Prothymosin alpha (ProT) is positively regulated by c-myc through binding to the E box of its promoter. Through creating(More)
Chronic inflammation is a potential risk factor for tumor progression. The molecular mechanisms linking chronic inflammation and tumor growth have proven elusive. Herein, we describe a new role for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in promoting tumor growth. TAMs can remodel tumor microenvironment and promote tumor growth.(More)
Thymic hormones have immunomodulatory effects on T cells and hence have been used clinically to restore the immunity of immunodeficient patients as well as to enhance the cellular immunity of cancer patients. Prothymosin alpha, which is a member of the thymic hormone family, has recently been suggested to act as a nuclear protein participating in the(More)
OBJECTIVE Kallistatin has been shown to be an angiogenesis inhibitor. In this study, we investigated whether adenovirus-mediated kallistatin gene delivery has a prophylactic effect in a rat arthritis model. METHODS Adenovirus containing the human kallistatin gene (AdHKBP) was injected intraarticularly into ankle joints before the onset of arthritis in a(More)