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Field measurements were conducted to determine particulate emissions and trace gas emissions, including CO2, CO, CH4, NMHCs, NOx, NH3, N2O, and SO2, from open burning of wheat straw and maize stover, two major agricultural residues in China. The headfire ignition technique was adopted, and sampling was performed downwind from the agricultural fire.(More)
As an indoleamine molecule, melatonin mediates many physiological processes in plants. We investigated its role in regulating growth, ion homeostasis, and the response to oxidative stress in Malus hupehensis Rehd. under high-salinity conditions. Stressed plants had reduced growth and a marked decline in their net photosynthetic rates and chlorophyll(More)
The global energy crisis and environmental concerns (e.g. global warming) have driven the IT community into the green computing era. Of clean, renewable energy sources, solar power is the most promising. While efforts have been made to improve the performance-per-watt, conventional architecture power management schemes incur significant solar energy loss(More)
Botnet is a hybrid of previous threats integrated with a command and control system and hundreds of millions of computers are infected. Although botnets are widespread development, the research and solutions for botnets are not mature. In this paper, we present an overview of research on botnets. We discuss in detail the botnet and related research(More)
Stem cells and cancer cells maintain telomere length mostly through telomerase. Telomerase activity is high in male germ line and stem cells, but is low or absent in mature oocytes and cleavage stage embryos, and then high again in blastocysts. How early embryos reset telomere length remains poorly understood. Here, we show that oocytes actually have(More)
Large-scale computing systems such as data centers are facing increasing pressure to cap their carbon footprint. Integrating emerging clean energy solutions into computer system design therefore gains great significance in the green computing era. While some pioneering work on tracking variable power budget show promising energy efficiency, they are not(More)
The chemical composition of the ocean changed markedly with the oxidation of the Earth's surface, and this process has profoundly influenced the evolutionary and ecological history of life. The early Earth was characterized by a reducing ocean-atmosphere system, whereas the Phanerozoic eon (less than 542 million years ago) is known for a stable and(More)
We compared two apple rootstocks -Malus prunifolia and Malus hupehensis - that differ in their tolerance to this abiotic stress. The former is considered drought-tolerant, the latter, sensitive. We monitored changes in their leaf ultrastructure and responses by their antioxidant defense systems. Irrigation was withheld for 12 d from two-year-old potted(More)
We report the derivation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from adult skin fibroblasts using a single, polycistronic lentiviral vector encoding the reprogramming factors Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4. Porcine teschovirus-1 2A sequences that trigger ribosome skipping were inserted between human cDNAs for these factors, and the polycistron was subcloned(More)
Glaucoma is a common cause of blindness affecting at least 66 million people worldwide. Pigmentary glaucoma is one of the most common forms of secondary glaucoma, and its pathogenesis remains unclear. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is an important regulator of innate and acquired immune responses and plays an important role in inflammatory/autoimmunity diseases.(More)