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—The use of low precision (e.g., 1 − 3 bits) analog-to-digital convenors (ADCs) in very large multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems is a technique to reduce cost and power consumption. In this context, nevertheless, it has been shown that the training duration is required to be very large just to obtain an acceptable channel state information (CSI)(More)
In this paper, a deterministic equivalent of ergodic sum rate and an algorithm for evaluating the capacity-achieving input covariance matrices for the uplink large-scale multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna channels are proposed. We consider a large-scale MIMO system consisting of multiple users and one base station with several distributed antenna(More)
—Using a very low-resolution analog-to-digital con-vertor (ADC) unit at each antenna can remarkably reduce the hardware cost and power consumption of a massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system. However, such a pure low-resolution ADC architecture also complicates parameter estimation problems such as time/frequency synchronization and channel(More)