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Are money and credit both essential? We show in a standard model the answer is — no. If credit is easy, money has no role. If credit is tight, money can be valued, but then changes in debt limits are neutral. This is true for any (not only optimal) monetary policy, and whether debt and tax limits are exogenous or endogenous; it can be overturned by(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has emerged as an important technique in cognitive neuroscience, permitting causal inferences about the contribution of a given brain area to behavior. Despite widespread use, exactly how TMS influences neural activity throughout an interconnected network, and how such influences ultimately change behavior, remain(More)
Traditional models of bank runs do not allow for herding e¤ects, because in these models withdrawal decisions are assumed to be made simultaneously. I extend the banking model to allow a depositor to choose his withdrawal time. When he withdraws depends on his consumption type (patient or impatient), his private, noisy signal about the quality of the bank's(More)
The paper presents results from a virtual reality (VR)-based system for upper limb rehabilitation. The system incorporates a range of interchangeable direction sensing devices (the Optical Linear Encoder (OLE) and the inertial measurement unit (IMU)) that can be adjusted to a large range of different arm and hand sizes, and interactive practice applications(More)
Persistent inflammation and neovascularization are critical to cancer development. In addition to upregulation of positive control mechanisms such as overexpression of angiogenic and inflammatory factors in the cancer microenvironment, loss of otherwise normally functioning negative control mechanisms is likely to be an important attribute. Insights into(More)
Neurogenesis occurs in the cerebral cortex of adult rats after focal cerebral ischemia. Whether or not the newborn neurons could synthesize neurotransmitters is unknown. To elucidate such a possibility, a photothrombotic ring stroke model with spontaneous reperfusion was induced in adult male Wistar rats. The DNA duplication marker BrdU was repeatedly(More)
BACKGROUND In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), two major pathological changes that occur are the loss of alveolar structure and airspace enlargement. To treat COPD, it is crucial to repair damaged lung tissue and regenerate the lost alveoli. Type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECII) play a vital role in maintaining lung tissue repair, and(More)
ZSTK474 [2-(2-difluoromethylbenzimidazol-1-yl)-4,6-dimorpholino-1,3,5-triazine] is a novel phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor that exhibits potent antitumor effects. Recent studies have shown that ZSTK474 is also with anti-inflammatory properties in collagen-induced arthritis. However, the effects of ZSTK474 on dendritic cells and inflammatory(More)