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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) guide posttranscriptional repression of mRNAs. Hundreds of miRNAs have been identified but the target identification of mammalian mRNAs is still a difficult task due to a poor understanding of the interaction between miRNAs and the miRNA recognizing element (MRE). In recent research, the importance of the 5' end of the miRNA:MRE duplex(More)
I develop and estimate a structural equilibrium model of the college market. Students, having heterogeneous abilities and preferences, make college application decisions, subject to uncertainty and application costs. Colleges, observing only noisy measures of student ability, choose tuition and admissions policies to compete for more able students. Tuition,(More)
Fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm is an important clustering method in pattern recognition, while the fuzziness parameter, m, in FCM algorithm is a key parameter that can significantly affect the result of clustering. Cluster validity index (CVI) is a kind of criterion function to validate the clustering results, thereby determining the optimal cluster number(More)
  • Steven N Durlauf, Chao Fu, Salvador Navarro
  • 2011
The panel data literature on deterrence and capital punishment contains a wide range of empirical claims despite the use of common data sets for analysis. We interpret the diversity of findings in the literature in terms of differences in statistical model assumptions. Rather than attempt to determine a " best " model from which to draw empirical evidence(More)
Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1/GDF15) has been identified as a potential novel biomarker for detection of pancreatic cancer (PCa). However, the diagnostic value of serum MIC-1 for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), particularly for those at the early stage, and the value for treatment response monitoring have not yet been investigated. MIC-1(More)